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Haggis and sweet pickled baby onion tartlets recipe

Haggis and sweet pickled baby onion tartlets recipe

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  • Dish type
  • Pies and tarts
  • Savoury pies and tarts
  • Vegetable pies and tarts
  • Onion pies and tarts

The haggis and pickled onions create a surprisingly delicious taste combination in these quick canapes.

9 people made this

IngredientsMakes: 12 canapes

  • 1 (454g) jar Garner's Sweet Pickled Baby Onions, drained
  • 1 haggis, freshly cooked
  • 1 jar cranberry sauce
  • 1 sliced white loaf
  • melted butter

MethodPrep:20min ›Cook:10min ›Ready in:30min

  1. Preheat oven 180 C / Gas 4 and butter a bun tray.
  2. Using a rolling pin flatten bread slices a little then use a cutter to make circles of the bread to fit dimples on tray.
  3. Brush bread lightly with butter and bake in oven for approximately 10 minutes until crisp and golden. Remove from tray and repeat with remaining bread to make as many canapé cases as you require.
  4. When required, fill cases with warm haggis, a teaspoon tip of cranberry sauce and top with a Garner's Sweet Pickled Baby Onion.


You can also use black pudding to create these deceptively simple little canapés.

See it on my blog

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Supermarket delivery Shap

You want to know more about supermarket delivery in Shap? Convenient: get all your products such as Creations Printed Embroidery Scissors 4, Umbra Fiboo Tumbler Grey and also Maltesers Gift Box at home! All known groceries from categories like Snacks and Dried Tomatoes of brands such as Roses and Uncle Ben’s. You buy it all comfortable and dirt cheap at the online supermarket. Free supermarket delivery Shap can sometimes even deliver the same day. Research whether a grocery store like Netto and obviously Pet Planet have a service in your postcode area. For residents of Stockbridge Village it is completely different when you compare it with Talwaenydd. Just search for your postcode (e.g. CM9 4YA0 or maybe CB4 5FZ0). So you will find yourself whether Tesco delivery in Shap is possible. Sebastianne (29, Local government administrator) Is very enthusiastic. “If we want even more comfort, we chose a mealbox”.

Finding the Recipes

Provisioning recipes in ESO are found in drawers, cupboards, cabinets and other interactable containers. Vendors do not sell them. You can also get your hands on the recipes by using the guild stores or by trading with other players.

You may have also noticed that there’s three recipes for every level that provides the exact same buffs. Prior to patch 1.6, this was because every alliance had their own recipe with different ingredients for level 1-35 recipes. This resulted in a massive number of different provisioning ingredients. Ever since the provisioning revamp, this is no longer the case. Provisioning recipes are now the same with every faction, however, there’s still three recipes for every specific bufff but this is to add diversity between the ingredients used. The actual number of ingredients has decreased.

This guide is purely about provisioning recipes. See our provisioning ingredient guide for a breakdown of different ingredients.

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    Faffa Cakes: a Home-Made Variation on Jaffa-Cake

    The closer we get to Father's day, the more apparent it becomes that if there is a myriad of lovely baking creations on offer for mums, there are far less so for dads.

    2 Free Range Eggs
    25 grams Granulated Sugar
    50 grams Plain White Flour
    1 sachet Orange Jelly Sugar free
    1 paquet Orange coloured chocolate buttons

    Read the Text Version

    Heidemarie Vos QUEUE DE BOEUF: French = See OX-TAIL QUICHE: French Cooking = A savoury one-crust pie filled with a basic egg and cream mixture with various other ingredients added e.g. cheese, spinach, onions and bacon, asparagus, mushrooms, etc. and served as a main dish. It is basically a rich egg custard pie into which other ingredients and flavourings are added. There are many different recipes that are variants of Quiche Lorraine, which was developed in the Lorraine area of France. QUICHE PAN: Cookware = A basic quiche dish is shallow round dish that comes in white ceramic, though it is also available in ovenproof glassware and has fluted sides to support the pastry. As with most ceramic ovenware, the ceramic version of this dish is not glazed underneath as this aids heat absorption. QUICK-RISING YEAST: = Available in most supermarkets, it is also known as ‘Double Action Yeast’ and causes dough to rise in half the time. QUIMBOMBO: Caribbean = See OKRA QUINCE: Fruit = Known as ‘Coing’ (French), ‘Quitte’ (German), ‘Cotogna’ (Italian) and ‘Membrillo’ (Spanish). It’s the tree, ‘Cydonia oblonga’, native to western Asia, with white flowers and fruits resembling apples. It is many seeded and only edible when cooked. The fruit is very high in pectin excellent for making jellies or stewed as a fruity side dish, e.g. compote. They are in the apple family and the best fruiting quinces are ‘Cydonia oblonga’ with varieties ‘Portugal’, ‘Meech’s Prolific’, ‘Orange’ and ‘Cape Selected’. They make the best quince jam, jellies or pie fillings. The jelly is excellent as an accompaniment to lamb, mutton, pork and venison, as well as on buttered toast, flapjacks, pancakes and scones. QUINCE CHEESE: Spanish Cooking = Quince cooked with sugar until it jells. At that point it is also known as ‘membrillo’. QUINGOMBO: Puerto Rican = Okra QUINOA: Central/South American Cooking = A very small, pleasant-tasting grain, which cooks in 15 minutes. It is low in gluten and can be ground into flour. And as with any grain, it can be sprouted. This grain dates back to the Incas and has excellent nutritional value. In South America it is also cultivated for its sharp leaves that are then eaten like spinach, though the natives do boil the leaves in two different waters to render them more palatable. In Mexico the grains are used for soups and cakes. In Peru it is also brewed into beer. QUITTE: German = See QUINCE QUITTUNG: German = The bill for the meal. 451

    R RAB: = See RAPE RABANITO: Spanish = See RADISHES RABARBARO: Italian = See RHUBARB RABARBER: German = See RHUBARB RABBIT: Game = Known as ‘Lapin’ (French), ‘Kaninchen’ also ‘Hase’ (German), ‘Consigliore’ (Italian) and ‘Conj’ (Spanish). Wild rabbit in French is ‘Lapin de garenne’. The tastiness of rabbit meat depends largely on its diet. Those feeding on bark and bushes are excellent and those eating maize are even better. However, their fat will be rather golden in colour. Hutch rabbits (those bred, domesticated) are pretty consistent in the quality and flavour of meat and are similar tasting to chicken, whereas wild ones are not and taste gamier. Rabbit should not be hung but be skinned immediately after killing. A ‘saddle’ roast is always nice but rabbit can be cut into serving portions and stewed or casseroled. Domestic fresh rabbits are usually available at specialty butchers or supermarkets year round. Of course there’s always the Hare. RÂBEL: French = See SADDLE RABO: Spanish = See TAIL RABO DE VACA: Spanish = See OX-TAIL RACCOON: Game = A carnivorous North American mammal. ‘Proycyon lotor’ has mask-like facial markings, A bushy black-ringed tail and greying-brown fur. Cook as you would anything you have to skin and remove all its glands and fat inside and out. Soak the carcass in salted water about 12 hours or overnight. It is then best casseroled. RACELETTE: Swiss cheese = Comes in wheel form, is firm and has a moderate mellow flavour. Used in fondues and for other cooking purposes, though can be used as a table cheese. ‘Racelette Parties’ are quite a custom in some parts of Switzerland. One needs to have hot boiled jacket potatoes on hand, onions and pickles (pickled gherkins). The ripened Racelette cheese is cut in half and the cut ends are brought close to the flames of an open fire. As the cheese begins to melt it is scooped onto a warmed plate and served with the hot potatoes etc. 453

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion RACK OF LAMB: = See LAMB’S RIB RADIATORE: = See PASTA FANCY FORMS /SHAPES RADICCHIO: Salad Green = Part of the chicory group with ruby-red leaves and white ribs and slightly bitter in taste which is a trait of the chicory family. See CHICORY/TRAVISE RADIS: French = See RADISHES RADISH: Vegetable = Origin, Europe and Asia. ‘Raphanus sativus’ is the most commonly known one in the eastern and western world. It is the red-skinned radish, which can come in pink and scarlet, in all shapes and sizes, from round to oval, from long to short. There are icicle radishes that are all white and there are many cultivars within that species such as green winter radish and red winter radish. Used mainly in salads. Known as ‘Radis’ (French), ‘Rettich’ (German) ‘Rapanello’ (Italian) and ‘Rabanito’ (Spanish). See DAIKON RAGI: = See AFRICAN MILLET RAGOÛT: French Cooking = Also called ‘Ragû’. A strongly seasoned vegetable and meat stew. It’s rich in flavour and can be white or brown sauce based e.g. Bolognese sauce. Ragû is the true name for the Bolognese sauce. RAGOÙT D’ IGNAMES: Traditional African Cooking = From West Africa a lamb and yam stew. RAHAT LOUKOUM: Turkish Confection = Turkish Delight. RAHM: German = See CREAM RAIFORT: French = Horseradish, a hot pungent flavoured root. The French prepare it with cream, the English with vinegar. See HORSERADISH RAINBOW ICE-CREAM TORTE: American Cooking = Layered ice creams. It can be any combination. However, chocolate, mint, strawberry and vanilla are a good combination. Sweet cherries are interspersed usually in the pink layer. It is topped with a crushed gingersnap crust. RAIPONCE: French = See RAMPION RAISED SHOULDER: South African = See LAMB’S SHOULDER RAISIN DE CORINTHE: French = See CURRANTS RAISINS: French = Dried red grapes. See GRAPES, DESSERT/TABLE RAITA: Indian/Cape Malay Cooking. A Cucumber and Yoghurt salad, made with cucumbers, yoghurt, cumin seeds and fresh mint or you can embellish it with finely sliced spring onions and a finely chopped de-seeded green chilli, at which point you would omit the mint. Normally served as an accompaniment to zesty curries. It is cooling. The refreshing yoghurt with fruit can also be used as a vegetable side dish. RAJAS: Mexican Cooking = Roast pepper strips, chillies and onion mixed, dressed with limejuice, used as a relish or salad. 454

    Heidemarie Vos RALLADO: Spanish = See RASPED RAMBUTAN: Fruit = A Javanese fruit related to the Chinese Litchi and similar to the ‘Pulassan’. A rambutan is quite a weird-looking brownish-red small Asian fruit. The size is slightly larger than a lychee, yet with all these very dark, almost black, soft ‘hairs’, like little tentacles sticking out all over. It tastes sweeter than a lychee. RAMEKIN: Culinary Term = Pastry cases filled with cream cheese. Also a small, individual-sized soufflé dish. RAMEQUIN: French Cookware = A small individual-sized fireproof soufflé dish of either glass or porcelain, same as ramekin. Also see COCOTTE RAMEQUINS AU FROMAGE: French Cooking = Individual cheese soufflés or cheese creams, a ramekin, a type of cheese fritter. RAMP: American Cooking = Its leaves look like lily of the valley leaves and normally have larger bulbs than spring onions, but in reality ramp is also called a wild leek. Chefs have taken to this wild vegetable and enjoy using ramp for its distinct garlicky flavour and its adaptability. It has a fairly short growing season. RAMPE: = See PANDANUS RAMPION: Vegetable = Cultivated for its roots, ‘Rampion’ is cooked as one would other winter root vegetables. It can also be eaten raw and its leaves can be cooked as spinach. Known as ‘Raiponce’ (French). RAMSON: Herb = Wild Garlic RANA: Italian/Spanish = See FROGS’ LEGS RANCID: Culinary Term = Having an unpleasant taste or smell, e.g. old oil, butter or nuts that have gone off. RAND: German = See BORDER RANGOON BEAN: = Legume. See LIMA BEANS RAPANELLO: Italian = See RADISHES RAPÉ: French = See RASPED RAPE: Vegetable = Also known as colza. It is of the mustard family with dark green leaves and white or golden-rod flowers. In Chinese it is called ‘youcai’ and considered an “oil vegetable” from which seeds Rape Seed Oil (colza oil) is derived. When the plant is cooked/sautéed, it has a slightly bitter, yet buttery taste, also known as ‘broccoli raab’ (Italian). Also known as ‘gai lan tsoi’ (Chinese) meaning Raab/Broccoli Raab or ‘choy sum’ known as ‘flowering white cabbage’. RAPESEED OIL: Fat = Rapeseed, also known as ‘canola’, ‘colza’ and ‘coleseed’ is part of the wallflower family, in particular the ‘Brassica’ genus. The plant is used as a vegetable in China (see Rape) and has approximately 42% oil content 2 kilos (4 pounds) of seeds yield just about one litre (4 cups) of oil. Its smoke point is at 225°C (approx.435ºF), which is higher than avocado or peanut oil. It is very low in saturated fatty acids at 6%. This oil is bland, neutral in taste, very light in colour and is 455

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion often mixed with other oils. Production of this oil on a grand scale is in USA, China, South America and Italy, though there is cultivation and some production on a smaller scale in the UK, South Africa and some other countries. It is commercially used in mayonnaise and salad dressings but is excellent for home use. RAPID-RESPONSE THERMOMETER: = See THERMOMETER RAPINI: Vegetable = See BROCCOLI RABE/ RAPE RAPUNZELSALAT: German = See CORN SALAD RAREBIT: British Cooking = Normally known as a Welsh rarebit. RAS EL HANOUT: North-African/Middle-Eastern Cooking = The Meghribi villages of North Africa have been attributed with originating this spice mix, which loosely translated means ‘head of the shop’, suggesting the best the merchant has on offer in his shop it’s his pride and joy! It can be a simple or a complex mix. The simplest but really delicious ‘ras el hanout’ is multifaceted with at least 30 or more spices in it. To simplify understanding ‘ras el hanout’s complexity and secrecy of blending of it, you have to liken this mix to a good curry powder becoming only really good on the palate at about when the merchant has mixed 50 or more spices and that formula (recipe) of the mix will remain a merchant family’s or chef’s life-long secret. So never expect one ‘ras el hanout’ to be exactly like the other unless you buy it from the same vendor each time or make your own to use on just about anything you are cooking from couscous to rice and fowl, game, meat and fish tagines. And, as with anything you taste, you have to make up your mind which one you prefer after sampling several. The more exotic ‘ras el hanout’ will include dried roses, a combination of dried chillies, cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, coriander seeds, cumin, allspice, ginger and turmeric as well as salt and pepper and the difference in each will be made by the exact ratio of one spice against the other. Basically one grinds all the ingredients together in a mortar and pestle or the spice/coffee-grinding attachment of your food processor. On a more humorous note for your dinner table trivia and conversation is the fact that the Marquis de Sade ended up in jail with his version of ‘ras el hanout’ for adding the aphrodisiac Spanish fly. Sort of like a bid of modern-day prank inclusion of marijuana in the mix, which would render it illegal. RASAKU™: Malaysian Cooking = Instant Coconut Cream Powder that can be reconstituted to become Coconut Cream or Coconut Milk by adding certain package-prescribed quantities of lukewarm water. Known in French as ‘Poudre de crème de Noix de Coco’. RASHER (OF BACON): Australian/British Culinary Term = Slice of bacon. RASPBERRY: Fruit = Known as ‘Framboise’ (French), ‘Himbeere’ (German), ‘Lampone’ (Italian) and ‘Frambuesa’ (Spanish). Any of various brambles of the genus ‘Rubus’, of the rose family, bearing edible berries, which consist of a mass of small, fleshy, usually red drupelets, which can also appear as yellow, purple or black. It is distinguished from the blackberry as being rounder, smaller and easily parted from the receptacle when ripe. This fruit has a very delicate, distinguished flavour and is much prized in the culinary industry. Used for jams, juices, fruit desserts, sauces, in tarts, as decoration on cakes, etc. Also known as ‘Boysenberry’. RASPBERRY BRANDY: Liqueur = Known as ‘Himbeergeist’ (German), ‘Framboise’ (French). It is clear raspberry-flavoured brandy, which is quite torrid. Produced in Germany, Alsace and Switzerland. RASPED: Culinary Term = Means grated in English, ‘rapé’ (French), ‘gerieben’ (German), 456

    Heidemarie Vos ‘grattugiato’ (Italian) and ‘rallado’ (Spanish). RATAFIA: Liqueur = Made from fruit kernel also a bitter almond flavouring. Further, it is the name of a very small macaroon. RATATOUILLE: French Cooking = A combination of sautéed vegetables which have been cubed, diced small or sliced. There are many recipes, but they usually have aubergines, tomatoes and green peppers in common. Sometimes recipes include celery, sometimes courgette, seasoned with salt and pepper, with our without the addition of herbs, e.g. thyme. At the end of the day it’s a vegetable stew, a mélange (mixture) of aubergine, onions, bell peppers, tomatoes and zucchini cooked in olive oil with herbs and spices, e.g. bouquet garni, salt and pepper. Recipes vary including for Ratatouille Provençal. RATTAIL TANG: = See KNIVES, WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN BUYING RÄUCHERSPECK: German = Smoked bacon. See GESELCHTES RAUCHFLEISCH: German = See SMOKED BEEF RAVIER: French Cooking = A shallow hors-d’oeuvre serving dish made of china and is particularly boat-shaped for serving marinated mushrooms, olives, radishes, pickled baby cucumbers or other cocktail titbits. RAVIOLI: = See PASTA WITH FILLINGS RAVIOLI CUTTERS: Useful Kitchen Extra = There are several models on the market to give you ravioli with jagged edges. The best one found is in stamp form on the lines of an ice cube tray. This allows one to spread the fresh pasta sheet over the form, place your filling into each little hollow the form provides to cover it with another sheet of fresh pasta. Just roll the roller over the pasta and the little bulges will be centred and cut. It cuts and seals the pasta all in one go. The stamp is truly a simple and much quicker way for perfect ravioli. In a pinch, lay your pasta sheet right on your work surface. Place a dollop of filling at even intervals. Place another sheet of pasta on top and using your fingers, press the 2 sheets of pasta together around each filling bulge. Use a pizza or cookie/biscuit cutter to cut and separate ravioli. RAW: Culinary Term = Something that has not been cooked - natural ‘green’ ‘cru’ (French), ‘roh’ (German) and ‘crudo’ (Italian/Spanish). RAW FISH AND SHELLFISH, ABOUT: = Not all fish lend themselves to be eaten raw or marinated. Recipes will normally give the ‘safe’ fish for these methods. However, one should be aware that raw fish could carry parasites, which would not be detected unless one was trained to know what to look for. Parasites can cause havoc with your intestinal tract. Only cooking or freezing destroys them. If very fresh fish is purchased for sashimi or marinating, it is advisable to pop it into the freezer just long enough to where it is considered frozen, then immediately remove and use normally. This short freezing action should have minimal affect on taste and texture and should actually be helpful in cutting the fish paper -hin for sashimi or Carpaccio. Regarding raw oysters, clams, mussels, etc., if an uncooked shell remains open, it usually means the mollusc is dead. If after cooking a shell has not opened also discard. Oysters should be treated the same and be cream coloured If they start to look very dark it means they have either come from polluted water or are affected by some mineral in the water. Shellfish from polluted waters could lead to hepatitis. Lobster and crab should be bought live and plunged into boiling water as soon as possible. Shellfish, mainly lobster, crayfish and crab, start to lose weight when out of water. It is therefore very important and in your best interests to cook them immediatly after being caught. Otherwise your 1kg (2 pound) lobster may well leave you with only half the weight. 457

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion RAW MILK: Culinary Term = This is milk fresh from a cow, sheep or goat or any other milk used for human consumption that has not been skimmed, pasteurised or homogenised. The animals’ feed affects raw milk taste. The milk gained from animals grazing in pastureland tastes quite different from milk gained from grain fed animals. Therefore if you use raw milk for cheese, you will find some cheeses better at a certain season than others. RAZOR CLAM: = See MOLLUSK REACTIVE DISH/PAN/POT: Culinary Term = Means the vessel reacts to acids, such as wine, vinegar, lemon-juice, tomato, rhubarb. Some even react to alkaline foods on occasion if left in the vessel too long and will discolour food and affect its taste e.g. spinach left in an aluminium pot will turn black after 20 minutes. Egg whites left in a copper mixing bowl will turn black after 20 minutes. A reactive dish/pan/pot includes: aluminium/aluminum, copper if not tin-lined, earthenware if not glazed, cast- iron and steel carbon when not seasoned. REBHUHN: German = See PARTRIDGE REBLOCHON: French Cheese = This slight, light-yellow, soft, insipid cheese is made from raw whole cow’s milk and its small wheel shape is encased in a burnt orange-brown skin. It has the character of turning bitter when left to become over-ripe. RECIPE: Culinary Term = The directions or exact instructions of how to prepare any kind of food or drink. Recipes are a guide to preparing a dish and can be improvised on, providing you know what flavour will come out at the end. Baking recipes, however, must be followed accurately as it is an exact science. RECONSTITUTE: Culinary Term = To bring back to its original consistency e.g. reconstituting powdered/dried milk to liquid milk by the addition of water. Dried mushrooms and dried vegetables are usually soaked in hot water for this process to occur. Dried soup mixes are brought to the boil and then simmered in hot water. One really just has to remember that one doesn’t eat dried foods without them being reconstituted unless it is fruit such as raisins, apricots, etc. REDUCTION: Culinary Term = Any liquid boiled or simmered to become about ½ to ¼ its previous quantity through evaporation thus intensifying its essence and flavour. RED ASIAN SHALLOTS: = See SHALLOTS RED BEAN PASTE: Oriental Cooking = A thick sweet paste made from red soybeans, sold in tins/cans in most Oriental shops. RED BEANS: Pulse = These are very common beans with a sweet flavour and grainy texture. RED BROCCOLI: Vegetable = Also known as ‘Cape Broccoli’ it has a beet-coloured hue about it. RED COLOURING POWDER: Chinese Cooking = A bright red powder used mainly in Chinese barbecued pork, giving it that red colour on the outside. One can use red food colouring to replace it. RED COOKING: Chinese Cooking = Known as ‘hung-shu’ (Chinese). Red cooking or red stewing is done in soy sauce rather than water giving the food a very rich taste and reddish brown colour. It is much like ordinary stewing, except the uniqueness is in the flavour. Seared large quantities of meats (beef, duck, pork, chicken, squab, lamb or carp) are then stewed/braised in a special sauce made of soy, sugar, sherry, ginger, spring onions and star anise until the meat is tender. The food cooked in it 458

    Heidemarie Vos ends up with the most incredibly wonderful flavour. This method of cooking is done for special occasions and festivals. The cut of meat is not important as it can be cooked for up to six hours until tender. In fact, it can be the toughest piece of meat and is often cooked the day before. Reheating gives it an even better flavour. (Much like ordinary stew improves in flavour if cooked the day before.) It can be served cold and/or moulded. Fowl is normally served cold. Bean cake, (very firm Tofu) can also be cooked this way. Pot roast is about the closest in cooking method. RED CURRANTS: Fruit = Known as ‘Groseille rouge’ or ‘de Bar’ (French), ‘Johannisbeeren, rote’ or ‘Ribiserln, rote’ (Austrian/German), ‘Ribes rosso’ (Italian), ‘Grosella’ (Spanish). These bright red, tart berries are clustered on a stalk much like a grape, though they are much smaller. Cultivation of these stem from several wild varieties. It is estimated this cultivation dates back about five hundred years, making ‘Ribes sativus’ a relatively new fruit. White Currants are simply red currants which have had the colour filtered out, thus producing an albino strain. Excellent for garnishing when left on the stalk, otherwise wonderful for jam and jelly. Of course the British are crazy about their red currants, and who can blame them. RED DATES: Asian Cooking = Small, red dried fruit with wrinkled skin about the size of a hazelnut it is sweet and prune-like in flavour. They must be soaked for 1 or 2 hours in hot boiling water before use. If necessary in a recipe, prunes can be substituted. Available in Asian markets. RED DATES, CRYSTALLIZED: Fruit = Stoned (pitted) Chinese jujubes, preserved in sugar ready to eat. RED DRUM: = See DRUM RED DUIKER: Game = A very pretty small antelope which inhabits South Africa’s forested areas. It is less reclusive than the blue duiker. It commonly ‘nests’ under dense cover, under fallen trees and makes ‘runs’ through thick bush. Also known as ‘Rooibosch-bokje’ and the meat is reputed to be better than that of the grey duiker. Cook as one would venison. RED FISH: = See ROCKFISH RED FLANNEL HASH: A New England Novelty Dinner = Any leftover from the original New England Boiled Dinner, be it carrots, cabbage, onions, corned beef, beets or turnips, just chop it all up and brown in the right-sized skillet with a bit of oil until it browns on both sides. RED GINGER: Chinese Cooking = Preserved ginger which has been processed with red colour used as flavouring or garnish. RED HERRING: English Cooking = No, it’s not a false clue! It’s a whole very salty herring that has been smoked, dried and dyed red. Trust the British sense of humour actually to dye the poor fish red! RED-IN-SNOW: Chinese Cooking = Known as ‘shiet lieh hung’ / ‘shieh li hung’ (Chinese). This dull, smooth, green leafy stalk is crunchy, firm and moist. It is similar in taste to broccoli and used as a main ingredient, mixed with meats or in soup. It is salted winter cabbage also known as ‘snow cabbage’ or ‘pickled cabbage’. Sold in tins/cans in Chinese shops or specialty stores outside of China. Chinese mustard greens can be substituted. RED KURI: = See BUTTERCUP SQUASH RED MISO: = See MISO RED MULLET: Salt-water Fish = Known as ‘Rouget’ (French), ‘Rotbarbe’ (German), ‘Triglia’ 459

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion (Italian) and ‘Salmonete’ (Spanish). A small red, delicately fleshed fish also known as ‘barbounia’ or ‘goatfish’ from Australian waters. RED PEPPER FLAKES, CRUSHED, HOT: = Also known as ‘crushed red pepper flakes’, these are commonly used in Italian and Chinese cuisine, and often set on the table as a condiment in Italian Restaurants and Pizza Parlours. They are available in most supermarkets in a shaker container but, if not, make your own by buying a variety of red-hot chilli peppers, or one kind, whatever takes your fancy. Dry them ensure they are fully dry before putting them into a herb or coffee mill and break them down, along with the seeds, just enough to be small, fine flakes. Do not fully pulverise them. RED PEPPER: = See CAYENNE. RED PEPPER FLAKES, KOREAN: Spice = These are not as hot as the hot, crushed red pepper flakes but are ground Korean red peppers, used for making ‘Kimchee’. RED SNAPPER: American Cooking = One of the favourites and cooked in many different ways, but is baked with vegetables and seasonings to give it a sauce. RED SPANISH ONION: Vegetable = A red-purplish onion. RED SPECKLED BEANS: = See CRANBERRY BEANS/ PULSES RED STEENBRAS: Salt-water Fish = An excellent fish from South African waters also known as ‘Copper Steenbras’ or ‘Steenbras’, a sea bream. Its liver is toxic due to its high Vitamin A content - so don’t eat the liver! The fish is best stuffed and baked and if marinated can be grilled or barbecued/braiied. See WHITE STEENBRAS RED STUMPNOSE: Salt-water Fish = From South African waters: closely related to Dageraad, it is ‘Chrysoblephus gibbiceps’ which can be found along the south coast from East London to False Bay in the Western Cape. Considered excellent eating and is gaining in commercial importance. Best baked, fried. RED TRUFFLE: = See TRUFFLE REDUCE: Culinary Term = To make less of in liquid volume e.g. one reduces a sauce by boiling it rapidly uncovered or simmering it further in order to concentrate the flavour, leaving a thicker, richer sauce. This is primarily done for cooked sauces. Reduce the recipe means to cut the quantity of the ingredients, usually by ¼ or ½. REDUCTION: Culinary Term = Any boiled or simmered liquid decreases from about ½ to ¼ its previous quantity through evaporation, therefore intensifying its essence and flavour. RÉDUIRE: French Culinary Term = Reducing a stock or sauce in order to thicken it, thus making it richer. It’s the same as ‘reduce’. RED WINE VINEGAR: = See VINEGAR, MORE ABOUT REFINER’S SYRUP: American Cooking = Also known as golden syrup or treacle, it is a concentrated liquid of sugar cane and is usually substituted for molasses. See CANE SYRUP REFRESH: Culinary Term = Chill under running water, trim stems and place the vegetable in cold water in order for it to rehydrate itself. 460

    Heidemarie Vos RE-FRIED BEANS: Mexican Cooking = These are pretty obligatory to have on the table at a Mexican meal. They are also used in savoury-layered dips served as an appetiser. They are cooked pinto beans (sugar beans, etc. can also be used) mashed and seasoned with garlic, onion, cumin, salt and pepper, with or without the addition of pork fat (lard). They should be creamy like mashed potatoes and not too wet. A wonderful meal or side dish is made when adding pan-fried chorizo, garnished with pork crackling and grated cheddar cheese. REFRIGERATOR: Major Kitchen Appliance = Commonly referred to as “fridge” or “icebox”. This appliance reduces and maintains lowered temperature in the chamber, usually below the external temperature. Can be fuel-operated or electric. The refrigerator has come a long way from its first invention, which was literally an icebox. It was an insulated, tin-lined box in which blocks of ice were stored in order to cool the chamber and thus its contents hence the word ‘icebox’. In some places in the world, refrigerators are still with or without a very small freezing compartment. As this apparatus became more sophisticated over the years, a larger, separate freezing compartment was added to the main refrigeration unit, though separate with its own door. Some models feature it on top of the fridge, some on the bottom, and later models have the freezer unit attached the full length on the side of the fridge some are even fitted with water, ice-cube and crushed ice dispenser options. Every housewife hailed the day refrigerators/freezers became frost-free. The latest though is the sub-zero refrigerator/ freezer combination, which means it flash freezes foods stored in the freezing compartment by removing air from both the freezing and the refrigeration compartments through a vacuum action. There are ,of course, the very small, under –the-counter models known as ‘bar fridge’ that are adequate for such a purpose as an addition to your normal refrigerator if you entertain a lot. If you live out in the country, away from regular shopping at supermarkets, you may well want a side-by-side refrigerator/ freezer, meaning the refrigerator is one unit and the freezer section of the same proportions is its own unit. These stand side by side giving the appearance of one unit though some do come attached. When choosing a refrigerator, as with any major appliance, you have to determine what your needs are, or will be in the foreseeable future but, whatever you decide on, ensure it’s rust-free and ‘frost-free’. See FREEZER REHKEULE: German = Haunch of venison. REHRÜCKEN: German = See SADDLE REIBBROT: German = See BREADCRUMBS, DRIED REINA: Italian = See BREAM REINDEER: Game = A very valuable animal, domesticated and kept in large herds in sub-arctic areas for milk, labour and hides as well as flesh. Reindeer meat requires a lot of tenderising and stewing as generally only the old ones are slaughtered. The best part of the Reindeer is smoked Reindeer tongue, a delicacy in Scandinavia. A native North American reindeer found in Canada and Alaska is known as ‘caribou’. REIS: German = See RICE REISNUDELN: German = See RICE NOODLES REJUVENATE: Culinary Term = To revive most vegetables that have gone a bit limp before they have totally wilted, is to cut the stem by about 5mm (¼inch), drop them into cold water and let them soak for as long as necessary until they regain their crispness - (much like reviving flowers). See REFRESH 461

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion RELAX: Culinary Term = Rest, allowing a dough to rest in order to rise allowing meat freshly taken out of the oven to relax (or rest) so the juices return to the meat before cutting into it, normal time is 5- 10 minutes depending on the size of the roast. RELEVÉ (S): Culinary Term = The name given to the second meat course of a formal dinner. This course usually consists of a whole bird or a large roast. RELISH: Condiment = A zesty sauce made with fruits and vegetables, which adds a piquant or contrasting, yet complementary flavour to foods. There is a variety of foods that fall into this category, such as chutney, etc. RELLENO: Spanish = Stuffed. See STUFFING/ FORCEMEAT REMOLACHA: Spanish = See BEETROOT REMOUILLAGE: French Culinary Term = The bones that have already produced broth once. The first broth has been poured off and set aside. These bones and aromatics are returned to the stockpot, and covered with fresh water brought back to the boil to gain further stock. REMOULADE SAUCE: Condiment = A mayonnaise-based sauce with the addition of chopped sour gherkins, parsley, capers, tarragon, lemon juice, Dijon mustard, salt and pepper. Rémoulade sauce is quite zesty. It is a good accompaniment to certain meats and seafood. REMOVE SALT: Method = In case of salted fish, like cod, you place it in a bowl of cold water and change the water every few hours for at least 24 hours. Blanch anything excessively salted such as salt pork, salty bacon or ham. Unlike normal blanching, by dropping food into boiling hot water for a few minutes to scald it, blanching for removing salt is also done by placing the given food into a heavy pot and covering it with cold water. Place it over low heat and bring it gradually to the boil, drawing out the salt. Once boiling, simmer food uncovered about 5 minutes or more depending on the size. Drain, dry and cool if necessary and use food as normal. In the case of oversalting a soup or sauce, remedy this by adding quarters of 1-2 peeled potatoes and cook until done. The potatoes will have drawn out the saltiness. Remove the potatoes if necessary and usee them in other ways. RENDER/RENDERING: Culinary Term = Refining solid poultry or animal fat removes impurities and improves the shelf value. Fat solids are diced. They are heated slowly in a pan until all fat has been released from its tissue also known as ‘trying out fats’ (USA). The fat is then strained off through cheesecloth or special paper and the remaining browned skin or bits and pieces are known as ‘crackling’, and are often used as a flavour enhancer. RENDERING FATS: = See RENDER RENNET: Culinary Term = Used for curdling milk for the purpose of making cheese. It is a substance extracted from the stomach lining of an unweaned calf. Today synthetic rennet is used. The name is given to anything that is used to curdle milk. Synthetic rennet is available in tablet form from pharmacies or some supermarkets. RENVERSER: French Culinary Term = To turn food out on a platter, to un-mould. REPÈRE: French Culinary Term = A flour and water paste (dough) which can also be made with egg white. Used for hermetically sealing pots and pans, cocottes and casseroles when cooking, in order to seal in moisture. 462

    Heidemarie Vos REPERTOIRE: Culinary Term = The range or number of skills, aptitudes or special accomplishments of a cook, gourmet or chef e.g. cutting, slicing or carving foods. It also means a stock or collection, such as recipes e.g. adding a recipe or skills to ones repertoire. RESIN: General Term = Solid or semisolid, clear or translucent, yellow to brown viscous substances drawn from plants by extraction from bark of bushes and trees. Resins are used for all sorts of purposes in the building, plastics and pharmaceutical industries and can be manufactured synthetically. Resins are not water-soluble. However, if one limits resin to the culinary field, it is used in ‘retsina’ and a good example of a resin is ‘Asafoetida’ used in Indian cooking. RETSINA: Greek Culinary Term = Dry white or rosé resinated wine. RETTICH: German = See RADISHES REUBEN SANDWICH: American Cooking = Swiss cheese, corned beef (or silverside) and sauerkraut dressed with Russian dressing (Thousand Island) between two slices of rye-bread, browned off in a skillet on both sides. A similar sandwich made with pastrami is called ‘Monte Cristo’. REVENIR: French Culinary Term = Giving colour to meat or vegetables by tossing it in hot fat, prior to adding liquid, more commonly known as ‘browning off’ the food before braising. The full term is “faire revenir” and is the basic method used for starting soups, ragouts, fricassees and daubes. RHUBARB: Vegetable = Origin China and Tibet. The stalk of ‘Rheum rhaponticum’ is edible. The leaves themselves are poisonous. The stalks are best stewed into compote for tarts and pies or incorporated with other fruit for compote. Known as ‘Rhubarbe’ (French), ‘Rabarber’ (German), ‘Rabarbaro’ (Italian) and ‘Ruibarbo’ (Spanish). It contains vitamin C, calcium and potassium. RHUBARBE: French = See RHUBARB RHUM: French = See RUM RIB: South African = See LAMB’S RIB/PORK/BEEF CUTS (for American usage of RIB) RIBBON STAGE: Culinary Term = Batter, cream, etc. beaten to the point of dripping off a spoon in ribbon fashion. RIB CHOP: American = See LAMB’S RIB RIBES ROSSO: Italian = See RED CURRANTS RIB EYE ROAST/STEAK: Meat = American cut: the eye of the rib, also known as ‘Spencer steak’ or ‘Delmonico’. See BEEF CUTS RIBISERLN, ROTE: Austrian/German = See RED CURRANTS RIBLETS: American = See LAMB’S BREAST RIB ROAST: American = See LAMB’S RIB also see BEEF CUTS RICE: Grain = Known as ‘rizi’ (Greek), ‘bath’ or ‘buth’ (West and South India), ‘riso’ (Italian), ‘Riz’ (French), ‘Reis’ (German), ‘Arroz’ (Spanish). ‘Ghanmono’ (Japan). ‘Brown rice’ is the firm-textured, unpolished, long, medium or short kernels of rice. ‘White rice’, may be firm-textured, long, soft or medium to short kernels: and it is polished. ‘Glutinous rice’ is the polished whole kernels of a short- 463

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion grain variety of rice, which contains a lot of gluten. It is usually mildly sweet and very sticky and known as Koshihikari in Australia. It can be substituted for round–grained white rice and prepared through the absorption method. Italian rice, also known as ‘Arborio rice’, is a polished, whole kernel of a rounded, short-grained variety of rice. It is not quite as glutinous as Chinese glutinous rice, though sufficiently so. Rice, originating from India and China, is the seed from the rice-plant. There are over 100 varieties of rice that vary in texture and flavour. The most commonly known ones are: Long Grain, Patna (Indian), Jasmine (Oriental), Basmati (Indian), Short Grain, Glutinous (Oriental) and Arborio (Italian). Some grains vary in their gluten content. Basically it boils down to long, short and medium-grained rice, as well as brown rice (which has been hulled but not further processed) and wild rice (black), which is not actually rice but an aquatic seed. Rice should never be cooked more than 20 minutes in order to maintain the grain and never be stirred, as it will turn into mush, with the exception of Arborio for Italian rice dishes that are constantly stirred. Thai fragrant rice is also known as Jasmine Rice. It’s really a matter of preference in taste and cooking as to which rice to use. Some recipes suggest long-grained type of rice others short-grained or glutinous, though the latter is usually used for Oriental or sweet dishes. Patna rice is known as ‘riz Caroline’ in France. RICE PAPER WRAPPERS: = See SPRING ROLL PASTRY RICE VINEGAR: = See VINEGAR, MORE ABOUT RICE WASHING: Culinary Term = The water in which the rice has been washed and used as a cooking liquid in the Philippines. RICE-A-RONI: American Cooking = A trademarked, commercially-packaged savoury seasoned rice and vermicelli noodle mix, cooked as one would paella. They say it’s the San Francisco treat. It does make a nice change from just noodles or just rice. Of course one can always do one’s own thing by just taking a handful of rice and crushing a handful of vermicelli, sautéing it, adding stock, and seasoning it anyway one likes it. Adding sautéed onions, bell peppers and tomatoes, as well as some young peas, with chicken stock makes into a very interesting dish. Without the rice it would be ‘Sopa Seca de Fideo’ (a Mexican dish). RICE BEANS: Pulse = These beans could almost pass for being a larger version of long-grained rice. RICE CAKE: American Origin = A gluten-free, moulded, crunchy crisp bread made from parboiled, long-grain white or brown rice. It is manufactured by using pressure and heat, forcing the rice to cook and erupt into the mould and is used as a low calorie snack and can be topped with whatever one desires. RICE NOODLES: Asian Cooking = Primarily used in Southeast Asian cooking (Thai, Vietnamese) where they are also known as “Rice Sticks”. Made from rice flour, they are very brittle and come in different sizes - wide (about 1 inch/2cm), medium (about half the width of the wide) and thin. Another variety is the very fine Rice Vermicelli, which must be soaked in boiled water for about 5 minutes, and then plunged into cold water to prevent overcooking. These are not to be confused with the Bean Thread Vermicelli, which turn transparent when soaked. See RICE VERMICELLI RICE PAPER: Asian Cooking = Made from rice flour, salt and water, formed either into very thin round cakes or rectangular sheets and dried. These sheets need to be dipped in warm water for a few seconds before use and are mainly used for wrapping spring rolls and other food needing to be parcelled. It is also satiny white paper made from the pith of a Chinese tree, made into a wafer-thin squares and used as a base for baking macaroons. RICER: Kitchen Tool/Utensil = A perforated container with a handle and a heavy solid disc fitting into 464

    Heidemarie Vos it, equipped with a connecting handle. This instrument is designed for pressing potatoes or similarly cooked and textured vegetables through this perforated cup. The food pressed through results in strings, about the diameter of a grain of rice. This utensil can also be used for pressing through dough, e.g. for spätzele. It really looks like a giant garlic press. RICE ROASTED AND GROUND: Asian Cooking = Roasting the rice imparts a special nutty flavour but it is not available from stores. To make: dry-roast rice in any frying pan over low heat for about 10 - 15 minutes, shaking, flipping or stirring it constantly so it browns evenly and does not burn. Cool. Grind in your coffee grinder or food processor to a floury, yet still slightly granulated texture. It is not as fine as rice flour, in fact it is more granulated. Used in batters it provides a crispier texture than other ingredients. RICE STICKS: Asian Cooking = Made from ground rice, it is a clear noodle and comes in a variety of widths. See RICE VERMICELLI RICE VERMICELLI: Asian Cooking = Also known ‘rice sticks’ or as ‘mei fun’, ‘my fun’ or ‘mi fun’ (Chinese), ‘beehoon’ or ‘meehoon’ in Malay, ‘sen mee’ (Thai) ‘rice sticks’ (Thai and Vietnamese). They are fine noodles made from very fine rice flour which are usually soaked in hot water for about 5 minutes, though may require boiling for up to 2 minutes. Often deep-fried right from the packet, at which point the noodles puff up and become snow white and are used as a contrasting bed for food both in colour and texture. These are available at Specialty Food Stores or Chinese Grocers. Also see RICE NOODLES RICE VINEGAR: Oriental Cooking = Known as ‘su’ (Japan) and ‘ba tso’ or ‘bai tsu’ (China) and is normally a mild, delicately flavoured, sweet vinegar made from rice. There are several varieties on the market for both Chinese and Japanese cooking. Red Rice Vinegar and Clear Rice Vinegar are both made from fermented rice. The difference is that the red is mild and sweet whereas the clear is sharper and less delicate. ‘Seasoned rice vinegar’ has sugar and salt added to it. There are also golden and black rice vinegars. The light amber is used in sweet and sour dishes and the black (known as ‘huck tso’ or ‘huts’u’) for ‘red-cooking’ as well as lending a darker colour in sweet and sour sauces. The red one is mainly used as a dip. A good Cider, White or Sherry Vinegar can be substituted though these are not as delicate as rice vinegar and should be diluted with water in substitutions. See VINEGAR RICE WINE, CHINESE: Wine = As the name implies, Chinese wine comes from rice, not grapes. It is used for cooking and for informal drinking. There are many varieties and grades available. Akin to the Japanese “sake”(rice wine), both are made from fermented rice, served warm and sipped from special tiny cups. Also known as ‘shao hsing’ (Chinese) substitute a dry sherry. See CHINESE RICE WINE. RICING: Culinary Term = The act of putting food through a ricer to obtain strings of food about the diameter of a grain of rice. RICOTTA: Italian Cheese = Quite a low fat, soft and bland sheep’s milk, a cottage-type cheese. It lends itself well in pasta stuffing and confections alike, as it can be flavoured to suit ones cooking needs. Though medium soft after two months of curing, it does become hard and quite zesty when aged further. Also known as ‘Ricotta Salata’. RICOTTA, BAKED: Cheese = ‘Baked ricotta’ is ricotta baked slowly to render a drier, firmer cheese than fresh ricotta. RIDGED CAST-IRON SKILLET/PAN: Cookware = Also known as a ‘ridged griddle’, this frying pan can be round or square.The raised ridges give the same effect on fish, fowl or meat, as would a grill rack, allowing fat to drain without scorching the food. It allows one to half turn food to sear in a ‘quadrillage’ pattern, which is a cross pattern, searing diamond shapes into the food. The ridges keep 465

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion meats off the bottom of the pan and any rendered fat, while the food is being ‘pan-broiled’. RIETBUL: South Africa = See KABELJOU RIGATONI: Italian Cooking = Ribbed macaroni. See PASTA HOLLOW AND TUBE FORMS RIGG: = See DOGFISH RIJSTTAFEL: Indonesian Cooking = Translated this means “rice table” which consists of a host of Indonesian dishes and not all that much rice. The Dutch have adopted this type of cooking and hence one will not only find Rijstafel offered in Holland, but also ‘Nasi Goreng’ and other Indonesian dishes in areas the Dutch have colonised, e.g. South Africa. Unlike commonly-accepted French-styled service, serving appetizers first, the Indonesian rijsttafel is served in no particular order and is more on the lines of a buffet with no beginning and no end. RIJSTVERMICHELLI: Indonesian/Dutch = See RICE NOODLES RILLETTE: French Cooking = A kind of potted meat, usually prepared with pounded pork. Recipes vary with regional cooking. RILLON: French Cooking = The difference between Rillette and Rillon is that for Rillon the meat is not pounded. They are very similar. RIND: Culinary Term = The outer skin or peel of fruits and vegetables RINDE: German = See PEEL/PEELING RINDERBRUST: German = See BRISKET RINDERWURST: German Culinary Term = Beef sausage. RING DOVES: = See PIGEON RING-NECKED DUCK: Game Bird = One of the best tasting ducks found less commonly in North America. RIÑONADA DE TERNERA: Spanish = Loin of Veal RIÑONS: Spanish = See KIDNEYS RIPIENO: Italian = See FORCEMEAT RIPE/RIPEN: Culinary Term = Pertains to fruits and cheeses, bringing them to the correct point of readiness to be eaten. See CHEESES, ABOUT RIPPE/RIPPCHEN: German = See CUTLET RISO: Italian = See RICE RISONI: See PASTA FANCY FORMS/SHAPES RISOTTO: Italian Cooking = ‘Rice’ in Italian. There are special techniques for making Italian Risotto 466

    Heidemarie Vos which is normally done with a short, round-grain rice known as Arborio rice, though other Italian rice, such as ‘Vialone’ and ‘Carnoroli’, is also suitable but may not be readily available in all markets. Risotto is similarly cooked as a pilaf, where one sautés the rice first and then adds stock and stirs in Parmesan cheese or whatever else you want to become part of this creamy mixture. Liquid is added at intervals and a constant stirring is necessary. The rice can be enhanced with different flavours and the stock you use (liquid) for it makes a difference as to how good the risotto will taste at the end. One seals the rice grain by frying it lightly so it won’t overcook. RISSIES: South African/Afrikaans Term = Chillies and Capsicum RISSOLE: French Cooking = Small patty or roll made of ground meat. RISSOLER: French Culinary Term = Giving colour to food by tossing it in hot fat or butter. This is very similar to ‘revenir’, except that no liquid is added after colouring the food. Specifically to fry or bake to gain a brown colour, e.g. roast potatoes = pommes rissolées. RIVER PEAR: Fruit = Of a West Indian tree. ‘Grias cauliflora’ is really not a dessert fruit but it can be pickled. Also known as ‘Anchovy Pear’. RIVER SNAKE: = Aboma de Rio (Spanish) found in West Indies, East, West and Central American Rivers. RIZ/RIZI: French/Greek = See RICE RIZ DU PIÉMONT: French = Italian rice such as Arborio being round-grained. ROASTED GROUND RICE: = See RICE, ROASTED AND GROUND ROASTING: Culinary Term = Applies to meat and poultry cooked uncovered in the oven, basically the same as bake and can also mean being cooked over an open fire on a spit. ROASTING PAN: Cookware = Is usually a rectangular stainless-steel pan, though they do come in aluminium/aluminum and tin-lined copper and can be anywhere from 5cm - 10cm (2-4inches) deep. Make sure you buy a sturdy one. This pan, no matter what metal, normally has sturdy grips or an extended rim on both of the narrow sides. Usually comes with rounded corners so it can be cleaned easier, which also facilitates pouring out pan juices. The thing to remember about roasting pans, when putting them in the oven, is to allow a minimum of 5cm (2inches) on all sides away from the oven walls in order for the oven heat to be able to circulate. ROASTING RACK: Cookware = A-V shaped rack is fastened to a flat rack. Some racks are adjustable to give a firm hold for meats and some are not. These racks fit into any roasting pan and keep fowl or meat from swimming in its own fat or pan-juices. They are also an excellent tool for smoking fowl, meats, cheese, etc. in a smoker, as it allows the smoke to circulate totally and penetrate whatever food is being smoked. However, for smoking foods a flat rack can also be used. ROASTING TEMPERATURES: Culinary Term = Best to have an instant response meat thermometer in your kitchen as part of your “tools”. Some meat such as chicken and lamb requires to be seared at very high heat before reducing it to settle to a steady medium roasting temperature. Other meats want to be cooked at a slightly lower heat and basically one has to match up the best cooking method for the given piece of meat/fowl/fish in front of you. Cooking times are normally given as per 450g (an American pound) but as 450g are negligible to ½kg (500g and also called a metric pound. The American pound usually gets rounded off to the metric ½kg. 260°C = 500°F is a very hot oven for searing beef. 230°C = 450°F and is used for searing lamb 467

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion or mutton. 220°C = 425°F is used for quick roasting fowls for the first 15-30 minutes depending on the size of the bird. 180°C = 350°F is considered the moderate cooking temperature for beef, lamb or birds. Slow cooking time is 160°C and 325°F and is used for slow roasting. This covers the cooking temperatures but one needs now to consider the temperature of the meat, its doneness and at what temperature. Using your quick-response thermometer, which must be inserted into the thickest part of the flesh, not stuffing, not bone or fat, you’ll be able to judge the exact doneness of whatever you are cooking, by whatever cooking method or means per this following chart. Now remember these are the internal temperatures of the meats and not the oven temperature. BEEF: done to rare at 60°C = 140°F, to medium at 65°C = 160°F and well done at 70°C = 170°F GAMMON/HAM: fully cooked at 60° = 140°F LAMB: rare at 60°C = 140°F, medium when 65°C = 160°F and well done at 70°C = 170°F PORK well done 70°C = 170°F. Pork, smoked and cured, is done at 65°C = 160°F POULTRY/FOWL: done at 80°C = 185°F Lastly, follow the recipe but check the exact doneness yourself, as not all meat or fowl come in exactly 500g or 1- pound portions and also judge how much extra cooking time you need for larger cuts and birds. ROBATAYAKI: Japanese Cooking Method = Grilling skewered meats and vegetables over red hot coals in a ‘konro’ – either tabletop or outside patio, using special coal. ROBUST: Culinary Term = Strong, vigorous in flavour and texture and flavourful on the palate. ROCAMBOLE/ROCHAMBOLE: = American spelling’Rochambole'. Resembles a shallot but also known as Spanish garlic. See ONIONS ROCK CANDY: = See SUGAR ROCK COD: Salt-water Fish = About seventy different varieties of Rock Cod found in South African waters alone, all of which are very important food. These fish require skinning and the best way to prepare them is by frying. (The other varieties include ‘Garrupa’, ‘Yellowbelly’, ‘Black seabass’, ‘Lantern fish’, ‘Butterfish’, ‘Blackfish’, ‘Black Bess’, ‘Wreckfish’, ‘Stonebass’, ‘Spotted rock cod’ as well as ‘Kingklip’ or ‘Koningklip’). ROCK CORNISH HEN: American Cooking = Cornish Hens fall into the same category as Guinea Fowl and Squabs and should be cooked accordingly. ROCK EEL: = See DOGFISH ROCKET: Vegetable = ‘Eruca sativa’, also known as ‘Italian Cress’, ‘Arugula’ (Italian/American) and ‘Roquette’ (French). It has a definite peppery, tangy flavour, which becomes stronger as the leaves mature, is wonderful in salads or as a salad green on its own and can be used as a sautéed vegetable on its own or tossed in risottos and pasta. The leaves are diuretic and can be taken for stomach upsets. They are an excellent tonic, rich in iron, chlorophyll and vitamins. The small brown seeds, when harvested, are used as mustard. The leaves are also great with cream cheese and cucumber. ROCKFISH: Salt-water Fish = The ‘Vermillion rockfish’ is found on the West Coast of the United States, whereas the ‘Ocean perch’, also known as ‘Redfish’ comes from the Atlantic. Their flesh ranges from white to pink in colour and the Redfish in particular freezes and keeps especially well. The Frozen Fish Industry in America uses both commercially. It is best fried. 468

    Heidemarie Vos ROCK LOBSTER: = See CRAWFISH ROCKMELON: Australian Term = ‘Cantaloupe’ (American), ‘Spanspek’ (South African) See MELONS ROCK PRAWN/ROCK SHRIMP: = See PRAWN ROCK SALMON: = See WOLF FISH ROCK SALT: Compound = Known as ‘halite’, mined from underground bands of salt, it’s pure sodium chloride. This salt was formed ages ago when old land-locked seas dried up. The hard rock varies in colour and breaks off in large chunks that need to be ground. What is called ‘rock salt’ in the US is known as ‘freezing salt’ and is inedible. The only use it has in the kitchen is that it retains cold or heat to serve either iced, chilled, raw oysters on the half-shell or baked oysters on the half- shell on it. Rock salt alters in flavour depending on treatment and where it is mined, which is all over the world. The variety mined in the East smells quite strongly of sulphur, to the point of being offensive. ‘Black Salt’ is Asian unrefined rock salt, and is sold in chunks and can appear blue or red depending on the trace elements of the region. ‘Grey Salt’ appears grey due to different trace elements but is the same as ‘Black Salt’. ‘Cooking Salt’ also referred to as ‘Kitchen Salt’ in the past was not treated with additives, but was simply refined rock salt that came in block form. Today magnesium carbonate is added, leaving it quite coarse though free-flowing and sold in a container. ‘Iodised Salt’ is table salt with sodium iodine added. ‘Table Salt’ is always refined and has magnesium carbonate and sodium silicoaluminate added it is ground much finer for table use. ‘Tenderising Salt’ is cooking salt with 2- 3% papain added (an enzyme found in papaya used for tenderising meat). ‘Pickling Salt’ is coarse, refined rock salt with no additives, as chemicals tend to cause things being pickled to turn slippery and lose their colour. ‘Pretzel Salt’ is rock salt from Mexico, its special quality being that it blends during baking but maintains its salt crystals. ‘Seasoned Salt’ is table salt simply mixed with a variety of flavourings such as celery root (celeriac), garlic, lovage root, onion, barbeque spices, Mexican spice mix or Cajun spice mix. ‘Nitrite’ is any salt or ester of nitrous acid. When mixed with salt it is known as ‘Nitrite-treated Salt’ it is used as a preservative in the food preserving and delicatessen industries. Caution, incorrect doses are toxic. ‘Diet Salt’ is a salt in which potassium chloride or some other low- salt preparation has been substituted for the removed sodium. See SEA SALT ROCK SUGAR: = See SUGAR ROCKY MOUNTAIN WHITEFISH: American = See WHITEFISH ROCOTILLO: Chilli Fresh = Origin South America and also known as “rocoto”and called a “squash pepper” due to its resemblanc to pattypan. This chilli is related to the habanero, Scotch bonnet and the Jamaican hot. Orange-yellow to deep red in its ripe form, it has a rounded shape with grooves, which taper to a point. About as long as it is wide and measures heat 7-8, is thin-fleshed with a mild fruitiness and intense heat. Best pickled and used in salsas. RODABALLO: Spanish = See TURBOT ROE: Culinary Term = ‘Soft roe’ is the sperm carried by male fish known as ‘milt’. ‘Hard roe’ are the eggs of a female fish of which some is made into caviar, or otherwise used in recipes. ‘Coral’ is the roe of shellfish, so called because of its colour. The one is called soft roe, ‘Laitance’ (French) the other hard roe ‘Oeufs de poisson’ (French). It is also known as the spawn. Certain fish roe can be used in dips or fried (soft roe) the other (hard roe) can be eaten fresh or dried and made into caviar. The best caviar comes from fish caught in the estuaries of the Black and Caspian Seas. ‘Beluga’ and ‘Sturgeon’ are the very best also ‘Servuga’, ‘Ship’ and ‘Sterlind’ are excellent. They are all in the ‘Acipenserides’ family. Though caviar is also made from other fish such as salmon eggs known as 469

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion ‘Ikura’ (Japan), even trout, it is not as highly prized and is usually coloured red or black. Some is sold as lumpfish roe, which is the least expensive. You can use any kind of caviar as a garnish or serve it iced, Russian-style, with chopped egg and chopped onion on the side along with savoury biscuits (crackers). ROGAN JOSH: Indian Cooking = A very spicy, rich, red lamb stew ROGGENBROT: German = Rye Bread, with or without the addition of caraway seeds. ROGNONS: French = See KIDNEYS ROH: German = See RAW ROLL: Culinary Term = Any of various food preparations rolled up for cooking or serving. The name is also given to a small round or oval, individual bread-like bun. ROLL OUT: Culinary Term = To work dough with a rolling pin until it has been rolled to the desired shape and thickness. ROLLED BONELESS LEG: American Term = See LAMB’S LEG ROLLED BONELESS BREAST: American Term = See LAMB’S BREAST ROLLED BONELESS SHOULDER ROAST: American Term = See LAMB’S SHOULDER ROLLED BREAST: British Term = See LAMB’S BREAST ROLLED BRISKET: British Term = See BEEF CUTS ROLLING BOIL: Culinary Term = Water is brought to where the boiling begins rolling in the pot. (Mostly required for cooking pastas.) Also water for tea or coffee is often described as often described as “vigorous” boil or “turbulent” boil. ROLLING PIN: Kitchen Tool/Utensil = A cylindrical piece of wood or other material for rolling out dough or paste. Also see WOODEN KITCHEN TOOLS/UTENSILS ROLLMOPS: German Cooking = A pickled herring fillet, usually rolled with a piece of gherkin and thinly sliced onion in the middle and fastened with a toothpick. The brine is flavoured with onions and peppercorns. ROMA TOMATOES: = See TOMATOES ROMAINE: Lettuce = Know as ‘Cos’ lettuce, a variety of lettuce with long spoon-shaped leaves and columnar heads. See LETTUCE ROMAN: Salt-water Fish = From South African waters a sea bream, ‘Chrysoblephus laticeps’ which occurs all along the south coast from Port St. John to False Bay. Also called ‘Red Roman’. It’s a relatively small red fish, very tasty and popular, makes for excellent eating and is best baked or grilled. ROMANESCO: Vegetable = A light green, almost cone-shaped vegetable with florets. Looks like a cross between cauliflower and broccoli. 470

    Heidemarie Vos ROMANI: = See GLOBE ARTICHOKE ROMANIAN PORK AND NOODLE CASSEROLE: National Romanian Dish = Akin to Lasagne. Boil 500gr (1 pound) of wide noodles to al dente. Mix into a bowl 1 pound cooked ground pork, (lamb, beef or chicken can be substituted), some wrung-out milk-soaked bread, minced leek, some fennel seeds and chopped parsley, salt and pepper to taste and finally, in a separate bowl, beat together 4 eggs, 1 cup of cream and ½ cup of grated hard cheese. Now layer the noodles and put some of the pork on it, add some of the egg mix and layer until all ingredients are used up. Bake about 45 minutes in a medium oven. ROMANO: Italian Term = Usually used as ‘a la Romano’, meaning cooked in Roman style. ROMANO BEANS: = See CRANBERRY BEANS ROMARIN: French = See ROSEMARY ROMBO: Italian = See TURBOT RÖMERTOPF: German = See CLAY POTS ROMESCU: Portuguese Cooking = An almond, hot pepper sauce consisting of ¼ cup of blanched, slivered, roasted almonds, 1 teaspoon finely chopped garlic, ½ teaspoon cayenne pepper, 1 teaspoon salt, 1 blanched, seeded, peeled and finely chopped tomatoes, ¼ cup red wine vinegar and 1cup olive oil. Blend all ingredients together with a handheld electric mixer until all the oil has been added in a slow stream and the sauce is thick and creamy. RÖMISHER SALAD: German = See COS/ROMAINE LETTUCE ROMPOPE: Liqueur = Mexican eggnog. RONDELLES: French Culinary Term = Round slices. RONDIN: French = A two-handled stew pot with a tight-fitting lid. See FAIT-TOUT ROOIBEET SLAAI: South African Cooking = Red beet salad. Made with beets, onion, sugar, salt and vinegar. ROOIBOLUS: South African Term = Red ochre, used for colouring food a bright red. ROOIBOS: South African = See HERBAL TEAS ROOIBOK: South African = See IMPALA ROOIBOSCH-BOKJE: South African = See RED DUIKER ROOT CELLAR: European Terminology = These were a total necessity and especially useful in areas of heavy snow. A family could be snowed in for weeks, even months. One would buy enough potatoes, carrots, beets and cabbage to see the entire household through the winter months. I’ve never really seen a root cellar as such in the US and am not certain if anyone keeps a proper root cellar or cold storage room because shopping is very convenient in the US. Mind you, some of these bomb shelters would be the best mushroom-growing places nowadays, though they really are not proper places to store anything organic as there is little or no air circulation. This should give you the idea of storing vegetables and fruit that can be insulated with straw and have an air escape in place for the 471

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion gases that are emitted. When storing, never put fruit and vegetables together in the same pile. Root cellars are ideal when you have a small garden and grow your own vegetables or you have a large family and buy everything in bulk. Having a separate pantry adjacent to the kitchen can also accommodate functions similar to a root cellar. ROQUEFORT: French Cheese = Made from raw sheep’s milk, it is round, medium soft blue-veined and has quite a bite to it. Its best season is from June to October. ROQUETTE: French = See ROCKET ROSE: Herb = Prior to hybridisation roses were used in condiments, jellies, syrups, vinegars and their oil was extracted into water for flavouring. Rose hips also known as ‘Hagenbutten’ (German) and ‘Gulab Ka Pani’ (India), have been used for soups and teas throughout the centuries. Rose petals can be sprinkled on sweet dishes and in salads to be eaten or for decorative value. You must ensure that the roses you place on your food have not been treated with any pesticides. See EDIBLE FLOWERS ROSE APPLE: Fruit = Of the Eugenia family, this rose-perfumed, wax-skinned, slightly pear-shaped fruit has sweet, juicy white pulp with a refreshing flavour. Known as ‘Jambu’ (India/Malaysia) and ‘Malabar plum’ (West Indies). Grown in regions of the Pacific Rim but mainly India, and South-China Sea areas including Hawaii, where it is known as ‘ohia ai’. Used for eating fresh and is made into jams, jellies, syrup and juice. Also see EUGENIA ROSE ESSENCE: = Rose extract (American) ROSE HIPS: Fruit = Known as ‘Hagenbutten’ (German) ‘Gulab Kay Beech’ (India) See HERBAL TEAS/ROSE ROSE WATER: Flavouring = Steam distillation is the method used to extract the flavour from rose petals. It takes 3000 petals to gain 1 litre (4 cups) of rose water. Used in Moroccan, North African, Persian and Indian dishes, mostly to flavour sweets and pastries, though in India it may be used in rice dishes such as biriani. Known as ‘Gulab Ka Pani’ (India). In Morocco a few drops are also combined with water used for the hand washing ritual before and after each meal, providing a fragrant and stimulating impression. ROSEMARY: Herb = A dark green, hardy bush with spiny leaves and a distinct strong flavour also known as ‘dew-of-the sea’. Best used fresh, though it is available dried. This herb enhances a dish tremendously and lends depth to the flavour. Use several whole sprigs or branches when roasting meats, especially lamb, pork, chicken or fish. Use de-leafed stalks as skewers for meat or fish, leaving only the tip with leaves. This herb is wonderful in pâté, on breads, pizza, with vegetables and in stuffing, dressings and marinades and is indispensable in the kitchen. Infusion of leaves makes a drink that improves circulation and relieves nervous headaches and colds. Fresh leaves can be applied for stings and bites. ROSETTE BOK CHOY: = See TATSOI ROSOLIO: Liqueur = Made from red-coloured raisins. ROST/RÖSTER: German = See GRILL/GRILLER RÖSTBROT: German = See TOAST RÖSTI: Swiss Cooking = Can be butter-fried, sliced or grated potatoes which had previously been 472

    Heidemarie Vos boiled in their jackets, peeled and allowed to cool. Traditionally served as part of a hearty breakfast with speck (smoked bacon) and eggs. Rösti can also be pan-fried, grated raw potatoes in butter and oil, until crisped akin to potato pancakes. The latter version is known as ‘home-fries’ (American) and usually also includes chopped onions and garlic, salt and pepper. ROTARY BEATER: Kitchen Tool/Utensil = This was the early invention taking over the toil of whisking by hand. It’s a hand-cranked beater with two beaters, usually made of stainless-steel, permanently fastened to gears and has a crank attached to its side also known as ‘egg-beater’. Above the gear is the handle by which to hold this tool while cranking the gears, which in turn moves the beaters. It would be used instead of a whisk for more liquid foods, such as eggs or beating egg whites or light batters. It is the forerunner of the portable electric mixer and food processor. ROTARY GRATER: Kitchen Tool/Utensil = This is a unique, smart- looking, plastic-housed gadget with a stainless steel drum ideal for small gratings such as Parmesan cheese, nuts or chocolate. It can be passed around the table for an extra grinding of cheese, as well as being a conversation piece. It comes with different stainless steel drums for fine or coarse gratings and is also available in all tin, though it does not seem to be engineered as well as the plastic-housed one with removable stainless- steel drum. ROTARY SHREDDER: Kitchen Tool/Utensil = This gadget was basically replaced by the food processor, is a three- legged, hand cranked tool with a foot to keep food in place and 5 stainless steel discs which when interchanged give fine shreds, as well as slices and julienne cuts of varied thickness. Indispensable if one does not have electricity, a food processor or a box grater. Ensure the feet have rubber points so it does not slide from the work surface. Also known as ‘food mill’. See FOOD MILL ROTBARBE: German = See RED MULLET ROTE GRÜTZE: German Cooking = A delightful summer or winter dessert with gelatin dissolved in raspberry juice with liqueur-soaked strawberries, cherries or black berries added. ROTE RÜBEN: German = See BEETROOT ROTELLE: = See PASTA FANCY FORMS/SHAPES ROTI: South African, Cape Malay/Indian/Caribbean Cooking = Though India, South Africa and Trinidad are miles apart this flat pancake bread filled with curried meat or fish is pretty much the same, give or take one or two ingredients. Roti is the Indonesian/Malay and Indian Term for bread. ROTI FLOUR: Indian Cooking = A more granulated flour than “atta” or “attar” and reputed to be better for making roti (a fried pancake like bread). ROTINI: = SeePASTA FANCY FORMS/SHAPES ROTISSERIE: French Culinary Term = A revolving spit on which meat or fowl are roasted or grilled. ROTKOHL: German Cooking = Red cabbage: the dish itself is sweet and sour. Made with shredded, red cabbage and the addition of sliced onion, apples, bacon, red wine, white vinegar, sugar, salt and pepper. It traditionally accompanies Sauerbraten. ROUGAILLE OF SALTED FISH: Traditional African Cooking = From Mauritius: fried salt fish (after several hours of soaking in water) with the addition of onions, parsley, spring onions, cherry tomatoes, garlic cloves and ginger, simmered until done and served with rice. 473

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion ROUGET: French = See RED MULLET ROULADE: French / German Cooking = Rolled meat with a stuffing of varied ingredients, the term can also apply to rolled vegetables with a stuffing or rolled cake, meaning a Swiss Roll. In English terms these rolled meat parcels are called ‘doves’, ‘pigeons, the most common being ‘beef olives’. ROULEAU: French = Rolling pin. ROUND: = See BEEF CUTS ROUND BONE/ BONELESS SIRLOIN STEAK: American = See BEEF CUTS ROUND CLAM: = See QUAHOG ROUND CUTTERS: = See BISCUIT CUTTERS ROUND ROAST/ROUND STEAK: = See VEAL ROUND STEAK: American = See BEEF CUTS ROUQEFORT: French Cheese = Matured in limestone caves and made from ewes’ milk. The curds are dusted with breadcrumbs, which are then particularly processed with mould to give this cheese its typical green veins. It is a zesty, salty and fragrant blue cheese. ROUX: French Cooking = A mixture of flour and butter (or other fat) cooked as in frying, then liquid is added to it, and it is used as a thickening for soups and sauces. There are 3 stages of roux - the lightest is used for white sauce, the next stage (medium in colour - golden, still a bit blond) used in sauces for seafood, pork, fowl, and the next stage (red - brown) used for beef, etc. The restaurant ratio prescribed is 315g (10oz.) of flour to 250g (8oz.) of clarified butter, which for smaller quantity home cooking would indicate almost equal amounts of each, e. g. one slightly heaped tablespoon of flour to one tablespoon of butter. ROQUETTE: Vegetable = See ROCKET ROWAN: = See SORB ROWANBERRY: Fruit = The Scottish name for the red fruit of the mountain ash, rowan tree which ripens in early fall, excellent for jelly. For substitution: See SORB/ SERVICE BERRY. ROYAL ICING: = See CAKE DECORATIONS ROYAN: Fish = A small, sardine-like fish. ROZE: North African Term = Rice. RUB IN: Culinary Term = Combine fat and flour together with fingertips until the mixture appears like breadcrumbs. This action is used in making short crust pastry or crumble. It also means rubbing herbs and spices into meat, fish or fowl. RUBANNÉ: French Cooking = A moulded dish, constructed in distinct layers with different colours of food and flavours. 474

    Heidemarie Vos RUBBED: Culinary Term = When fresh herbs are crushed between your hands to secrete their oil, it is known as rubbing the herbs. They are then usually in turn rubbed onto or into the food. RUBY: = See PORT RÜCKEN/REHRÜCKEN: German = See SADDLE/VENISON SADDLE RUIBARBO: Spanish = See RHUBARB RULER: Useful Kitchen Extra = A plastic ruler is necessary in any kitchen for the purpose of measuring the length or width of various foods e.g. pasta dough, pastry. RULLE: Cape Malay = See CRULLERS RULLESPULSE: Norwegian Cooking = A spiced lamb and stuffed, cubed veal roll that has been tied together and marinated for several days, then braised, weighted and cooled for 48 hours. It is then sliced thinly to be part of a classic buffet. RUM: Liquor = Gained from sugar cane juice but mostly molasses, hence it is also sometimes referred to as ‘Cane’ spelled ‘Rhum’ (French). There are four varieties of rum: the best reputedly comes from Cuba and is white (clear) or gold. Jamaica’s rum is dark and nipping. Puerto Rican, Mexican, New England and Barbados rum are not quite up to the standards of the Cuban or Jamaican rum. South Africa produces ‘Cane Spirit’ but it lacks the smoothness of the true rums. RUMAKI: American Cooking = Chicken livers, sliced water chestnut marinated in Soy or Teriyaki sauce, it is then wrapped in bacon and fastened with a toothpick (that had been soaked in water) and then grilled. Served as an appetiser. RUMBLEDETHUMPS: Scottish = See COLCANNON RUMP: = See BEEF CUTS RUMP STEAK: = Sirloin steak (American) See BEEF CUTS RUNNER BEANS: Legume = Origin Central and South America, also known as ‘Haricot d’Espagne’ (French). They are quick climbing and are trained onto poles where they flower and bear profusely. There is a dwarf variety that does not climb. The flavour of the pole runner bean is usually stronger and coarser than that of the dwarf bean, which should be prepared whole, not cut or torn up. RUOTE: = See PASTA FANCY FORMS/SHAPES RUSH NUT: = See CHUFA RUSK: Baked Goods = A type of yeast and egg bread made with fresh milk or buttermilk. It can also be sweet and contain raisins or be anise-flavoured. After it is baked, it is sliced and dried very slowly under low heat. Rusks are similar to the Italian ‘biscotti’, but in much cruder form. Unlike the biscotti that are usually sweet and well flavoured with almonds, aniseed, chocolate or coffee, rusks are not as delicate as biscotti. Usually eaten before breakfast with the first cup of tea or coffee. RUSSIAN TURNIP: = See RUTABAGA/ SWEDE RUSSIAN COOKING, GENERAL: = Russian cuisine as such is a conglomeration of various influences from the different countries they have either taken over, or ideas they have imported. Hence 475

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion things like “Borsch” are actually from Poland with dishes from Latvia, Georgia the Balkans as well as Turkey and food from all the way to Mongolia that have been brought into the Russian culinary fold with later French influences, as they hired French chefs to cook in their palaces. If you study Polish cuisine you see a lot of it occurring in Russia. Even the ‘zakuski’ that is the start of every Russian dinner, no matter how low or high an economic standing a family has, is served by every family even if it is only a piece of bread. This tradition was adopted from the Scandinavians and is attributed to the first royal Viking of Kiev, Prince Rurik, for bringing it to Russia. Zakuski in Russia is traditionally always accompanied by vodka and visa versa. This tradition was later adopted in France known as hors d’oeuvre, and is accompanied by wine. Overall though, they have taken the best dishes of each country they made contact with or had invaded and made it their own. Dishes graced with names like “Stroganoff” or “Orloff” were dishes created by French chefs who honoured their masters. RUTABAGA: Vegetable = Eurasian in origin, ‘Brassica napus var. napobrassica’ known as ‘Russian turnip’ has a thick, bulbous root. Also known as ‘Swedish turnip’ or ‘Swede’ as the name came from the Swedish ‘rotabaggar’ from being hybridised in Scandinavia during the Middle Ages from the original Eurasian root. Rutabaga needs to be fully peeled and cut into chunks like potatoes. Cook as one would turnip and mix well with mashed potatoes. See SWEDE RYBNAYA KULEBYAKA: Russian Cooking = A classic dish. This is a large flat, pastry encased fish pie which normally has the top of the pastry elaborately garnished with leaves of pastry. Usually made with salmon but for very special occasions and for special guests it is made with the best sturgeon. Can be served hot or cold. RYE: Grain = Origin Asia and Europe, belongs to the grass family, genus ‘Secale’ which can withstand cold weather. Grown since ancient Roman times, now mostly grown in Europe (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) and Scandinavia, where rye bread is very popular for its lower gluten and slightly sour taste. Owing to the lower gluten in rye, it does not leaven as well with yeast as wheat, making it a somewhat compressed, weighty bread. RYE: Spice = See MUSTARD SEED RYE BREAD: Baked Goods = Also known as ‘Jewish Rye’ (American), ‘Pain de seigle’ (French), ‘Roggenbrot’ (German), ‘Pane nero’ (Italian) and ‘Pan moreno’ (Spanish). RYE CRACKED: Grain = ‘Cracked rye’ are cracked, unpolished kernels, slightly sour in taste. 476

    S SABA: Japanese = See MACKEREL SABANANGVLEIS: Traditional Cape Malay Cooking = From South Africa. A mild curried, minced mutton dish made with butter, onions, garlic, mashed potatoes, masala, turmeric, yoghurt, cloves and bay. SABAYONE OR ZABAGLIONE OR ZABAIONE: English/Italian Dessert = It’s anyone’s guess whether it’s a British or Italian invention, but I come out strong in favour of Italian Cooking. It’s the same recipe but the nomenclature is just to confuse us a bit more. Beat 8 egg yolks with 1cup confectioners’ sugar and then heat it in a double boiler beating constantly and slowly add ½ cup Marsala, Madeira or sherry until the mixture is at a custard stage. Beat the 8 egg-whites to stiff and mix them in. The egg whites will be cooked from the heat of the custard and will lighten the blend. Transfer mixture into sorbet, sherbet, custard or any other kind of fancy glasses. SABLE FISH: Salt-water Fish = Also known as ‘Black Cod’, is a very fatty American West-Coast fish, reputed to taste like butter with delicately grained flesh. Cooking would be as for any fatty fish. SABLE ANTELOPE: Game = A large, aggressive, very proud, magnificent South African antelope with large, curved back horns, which are larger in males. It avoids wide-open, grassy plains. Lions restrain themselves about attacking them. Their flesh is reputed to be better than that of the Roan Antelope. Cook as venison. SABRE BEAN: = See SWORD BEAN SABZI: Middle-Eastern Cooking = The name given to a herb salad, usually a combination of common kitchen herbs such as mint, parsley, dill, etc. SACCAROMETER: Kitchen Tool/Utensil = A thermometer measuring the density of syrup, essential for candy making as it registers temperatures up to 470ºF (250ºC) also known as ‘candy thermometer’ or ‘pese -sirop’ (French) and is just as useful for measuring the temperature of oil for deep-frying. SACCHARINE: Culinary Term = A synthetic and non-nutritive sweetener. SACHERTORTE: Austrian Cooking = Origin Vienna, Austria. An apricot-jam-filled rich chocolate cake covered with chocolate icing. Named after chef Franz Sacher who, as chef to Prince Metterrich, 477

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion first baked the cake in 1832. The cake became world famous by 1836 after Franz Sacher became owner of a Wine and Delicatessen business, which was also a pastry shop in Vienna. Meanwhile, Hotel Sacher (no connection to Franz Sacher) had become a world-renowned culinary mecca and was sending its version of Sachertorte all over the world. There was much dispute between the famous pastry shop Demel’s and Hotel Sacher about who had the right to call their Sachertorte the “original”. All of Vienna was in an uproar and on tenterhooks. The city practically held its breath for seven years whilst things got sorted out in court. The difference in the two is mainly that the Demel’s version covers the cake in apricot jam and then glazes it overall with chocolate icing, whereas the Hotel’s version was to slice the cake horizontally and deposit a layer of apricot jam in its middle, then cover the whole cake with chocolate icing. The Hotel won the case so Sachertorte is now presented with the apricot jam in the middle. SACHET: Culinary Expression = A sachet can be many things. For instance in German it would a ‘Päckchen’, meaning a little paper packet with the contents premeasured. A sachet of dried milk is usually one litre. A sachet of gelatine or yeast is usually 1 tablespoon. A sachet of baking powder, sugar or replacement sugar (for diabetics or diatetics) is normally 1 teaspoon. If your recipe calls for one sachet in a normal recipe it is 1 teaspoon. You really have to go by what you’re cooking. Don’t forget the normal usage of the word ‘sachets’ is mostly associated with lavender made into a sachet to hang among your clothes in your clothing closets and usually took two or more tablespoons to fill the frilly sachet material. SADDLE: Culinary Term = Purely applied to the back of venison, hare or rabbit in England. It also refers to the back of a sheep in the U.S. Also known as ‘Selle’ or ‘râbel’ (French), ‘Rücken’ (German), ‘Schiena’ (Italian) and ‘Lomo’ (Spanish). The name defines it as being a joint of meat from any deer, lamb or mutton taken from the back in between the hind legs and the last rib. When it comes to hare and rabbit, the saddle cut reaches to the tail. With a saddle cut one basically ends up with the tenderloins/fillets, two loins still attached to the vertebrae, as well as the ‘skirt’ that may or may not be trimmed away. The identical cut applied to beef is known as ‘baron’, meant strictly for roasting. The term applied specifically to venison becomes ‘Selle de chevreuil’ (French), ‘Rehrücken’ (German), ‘Lombo di capriolo’ (Italian) and ‘Lomo de corzo’ (Spanish). See LAMB’S LOIN SADZA: Traditional African Cooking = Stiff porridge (mieliepap) in Zimbabwe. SAFFLOWER OIL: Fat = Origin India, where its petals were used for dye and seeds for lamp oil. It is now largely cultivated in the USA production also occurs in Australia, India, Mexico, Portugal and Spain. This oil requires considerable refinement due to its natural red colour. Seeds yield about 35% oil, are low in saturated fatty acids (7-9%) and are high in polyunsaturated (65-75%). It is a delicate, light oil and is used for salads, baking and frying. SAFFRON: Spice = Origin: Greece and Asia Minor. Known as ‘Zafraan’ (India) and ‘kesar’ (Hindi). ‘Safran’ (French/German), ‘Zafferano’ (Italian) and ‘Azafran’ (Spanish). ‘Crocus sativus’ is considered the most expensive spice in the world. It is the dried stamen of a purple crocus flower and it takes literally thousands to produce 25g/1oz. 70,000 flowers produces 450g (an American pound). It is available in threads and in powdered form, (though be aware when you buy the powdered form - sometimes ground turmeric, known as Indian saffron, is substituted for the ground saffron and turmeric is far less expensive). For cooking, soak a few threads (about 15 minutes) - to colour rice, etc. It has a pungent flavour and is slightly bitter. The threads do give a better flavour than the ground version. Used in Spanish paella, stews, as well as Cape Malay, Indian and Middle Eastern dishes. Turmeric can be substituted in cooking for colour but not for flavour. Current production is in Mediterranean Europe, mainly Spain, as well as India, Turkey, Iran and China. SAFFRON, MEXICAN: Spice = Whereas Spanish saffron is prohibitively priced for some ($2,000 per 478

    Heidemarie Vos 450grams), Mexican saffron, which includes the whole flower, is quite inexpensive, an alternative but does not have the same fine quality. One may also find Turkish saffron to be very similar to Mexican saffron. Found in Mexican or Middle Eastern markets though be careful not to be fooled into being sold turmeric, when it comes in ground form. SAFRAN: French/German = See SAFFRON SAFT: German = See GRAVY (Saft also means juice in German). SAGANAKI: Greek Culinary Term = A heavy skillet. The dish (usually flour dusted haloumi) or whatever is fried in this skillet is then also referred to as saganaki. SAGE: Herb = Known as ‘Sauge’ (French), ‘Salbei’ (German) and ‘Salvia’ (Italian/Spanish). Varieties include Purple Sage, Golden Sage and Pineapple Sage, though the most common is a green- grey, long-leafed plant with a very savoury aroma and unusual flavour and used freshly-chopped, rubbed or dry ground. The fresh is obviously more potent. This herb is so very strong and individualistic, it is difficult to use it with other herbs as it tends to overpower, rending other herbs’ flavours null and void, thus is best given a “solo performance” as a herb in a dish. It goes particularly well with poultry, pork, veal, game, vegetables and stuffing but is also used in egg dishes, sausages, soups, sauces, dressings and with fish. Infusion of leaves provides a hot drink for coughs, colds and constipation. It can be used as tonic tea, mouthwash and to ease rheumatic pain. SAGO: Starch = Origin: West Indies, now also cultivated in Malaysia and other tropical regions. It is starch derived from the pith of the sago palm tree in the ‘Metroxylan’ family, of which there are several varieties. Sago has been used in Europe as a popular starch for several centuries and can be replaced with arrowroot. The starch is gained through beating the soft pith of the palm in water. It is then dried, loosened and processed into tiny little pellets resembling very small pearls. Sweet in taste, semi-transparent, sago beads are very hard and are mainly used in milk puddings and to thicken soups and stews. It is often confused with tapioca or tapioca flour due to similar uses and characteristics. SAG ALOO: Pakistan Cooking = A spice mix made up of cinnamon, sugar, salt, ginger and turmeric, used in the Hansa region of Pakistan, an area also known for its apricots. SAHNE: German = See CREAM SAIFUN: Japanese = See HARUSAME SAIGNANT: French Culinary Term = Used to describe underdone meat. SAIGON CINNAMON: Spice = Much stronger than normal cinnamon and is also known as Vietnamese cinnamon. In Saigon it’s the spice used for ‘beef pho’ and is loved for its oil content and its slightly sweet but spicy flavour. Also so much stronger than normal cinnamon that a lesser amount should be used for cooking and baking. SAIN GORLON: French Cheese = As the French were not to be outdone in making cheeses, Sain Gorlon is the French answer to the Italian Gorgonzola. It is a fairly new and quite a recent addition. This blue cheese really nips at the taste buds. SAINDOUX: French = See LARD SAINT MARCELLIN: French Cheese - A mild, very lightly salted, flaky goats’ milk cream cheese, which comes in small rounds. 479

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion SAINT NECTAIRE: French Cheese = This semi-hard, light yellow, otherwise uninspiring cheese comes up with a surprisingly exquisite flavour. SAINT PAULIN: French Cheese = This cheese is almost identical to Port Salut in every quality, including its bland taste. SAKÉ: Japanese = Called a rice wine used for cooking and drinking and served warm, usually about 40ºC/105ºF. Method: pour saké in a special rice wine decanter and immerse in very hot water for about 5 minutes. In Japan all liquors are referred to as Saké and make no mistake it has quite a strong kick to it. A newer school of thought is that Saké does not only go with Sushi and does not necessarily have to be heated. It all depends on how ‘rough’ a grade the wine is whether it should be heated or not. Heating will remove some of that roughness. Good grades of this brew can, of course, be quite delicate without heating it. Specified cooking saké normally has a lower alcoholic content. See CHINESE RICE WINE. SAKE: Japanese = Note the lack of the accent over the E giving it a different meaning. See SALMON SAL/SALE: Spanish/Italian = See SALT SALAD: Culinary Term = The word stems from Sal (salt) and was ‘Sallets’ which mainly meant leaves and herbs mixed and dressed with salt. Known as ‘Salade’ (French), ‘Salat’ (German), ‘Insalata’ (Italian) and ‘Ensalada’ (Spanish). Today, salads have taken on a whole new meaning being prepared with a variety of greens, as well as raw and cooked vegetables, meats, fish, fowl and fruits. A host of recipes exists for any variety and some cookbooks have been solely devoted to the creation of salads. SALAD BURNET: Herb = The leaves are delicate, yet nutty, almost cucumber-flavoured and are best with cucumber, tomato, salads, egg dishes, chicken and creamed sauces. Infusion of leaves produces a warm drink that reduces fever and stimulates kidney activity. SALAD DRESSING: Culinary Term = A mixture used to dress (garnish) salad. A simple formula to remember for salad dressing is 1 part vinegar to 3 parts oil with the addition of salt and pepper and other flavourings according to your choice. There are numerous recipes for a great variety of salad dressings, some made with mayonnaise or yoghurt rather than an oil and vinegar base. Citrus or other fruit juices can also be substituted for vinegar. SALAD SPINNER: Kitchen Tool/Utensil = This ingenious plastic device is ideal for drying any type of salad leaf. A perforated basket sits in a solid bowl. The lid has a wheel, which, when turned, whirls the basket, spinning it and the force of the spinning extracts water from the leaves. You want dry leaves to dress a salad so the dressing stays on the leaves. As a substitute for this gadget, place lettuce into a lint-free kitchen towel, gather the corners of the towel and rapidly twirl the bundle about to expel any excess water before dressing the leaves. SALADE: French = See SALAD SALADE DE MÂCHE: French = See CORN SALAD SALADIER: French = Salad bowl specifically a deep, large china one which can be round or squared. Wooden salad bowls are not traditionally used for salads in France but are known as ‘sébilles’. SALAMANDRE: French = Salamander in English, the upper element of an oven, under which foods are placed to brown and is better known as a broiler or grill. Home ovens do not have the same grilling capacity for obtaining an even glazed or browned surface on a large dish. It is also a long-handled 480

    Heidemarie Vos round iron utensil which when red-hot is placed within inches of the surface of a dish to give instantaneous browning of its surface. The latter salamander has been replaced to a large extent in most commercial kitchens by chefs now using a blowtorch to give the same but more rapid effect. Small, portable blowtorches are available for home kitchen use. SALAME: Processed Meat = There are so many varied Italian Salames on the market, different weights up to 2kg (4 pounds), spiced hot, mild and they are so differently textured its almost impossible to list them all. Mostly named after the city they are from and some are finer than others, coarser, spicier, some manufactured, some homemade. However, one thing is for certain, any Italian salame is excellent e.g. Salame Napoli, Salame Genoa, Salame Bindon. Salame Felino, for instance, is particular to the Parma region in Italy. SALAMI: Processed Meat = German smoked or dried, (cured) pork sausage. The best known is ‘Cervelat’ of which there is also an Italian version. SALAT: German = See SALAD SALAT HAKIBBUTZNIKIM: Israeli Cooking = This salad , which originated in the kibbutzim where it is apparently eaten for breakfast, consists of delicately-shredded vegetables, hard-boiled eggs, cottage cheese, yoghurt, sour cream and herbs of choice. SALAT HUSSARD: Dutch/German Cooking = See HUZAREN SALAT made mostly like a potato salad with other vegetables such as carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, green peas, garnished with hardboiled egg, cocktail tomatoes and slices of, or very small dill gerkins (pickles). SALBEI: German = See SAGE SALCHICHON: Spanish = See SAUSAGES SALEP: Origin East and Near East = An edible substance gained from the tuber of a certain variety of Orchis (orchid). SALMAGUNDI: American Term = A salad of finely sliced or chopped onions, chopped meat, eggs and anchovies presented on a bed of lettuce with a vinaigrette. It is not a Salad Niçoise or a Chef’s Salad. SALM/SALMONE: German/Italian = See SALMON SALMI: French Culinary Term = Applied to a stew made of roasted game cooked in a wine sauce. SALMON: Salt-water and Fresh-water Fish = Also known as ‘Saumon’ (French), ‘Salm’ or ‘Lachs’ (German), ‘Salmone’ (Italian), ‘Salmon’ (Spanish) and ‘Sake’ (Japanese). (Not to be confused with ‘Saké’ the rice wine). They travel upstream in fast-running, cool rivers to spawn. A very popular fish indeed and in great demand! Norwegian Salmon is considered the best with Scottish Salmon running a close second from an epicurean point of view and when it’s smoked, Canadian Salmon is reputed to be at its best. European Salmon are about one third the size than those prevalent in the North Sea, though occasionally a large one is caught up to 35kg (about 70 lbs). Salmon in general is prized for its distinctive flavour and firm, somewhat fatty flesh which can range in colour from white to pale pink. Medium-sized ones are reputed to be better than the large ones. Small Salmon are called ‘grilse’ in England and are usually between 2-4 kg (about 4-8lbs). ‘Smolts’ are young salmon at about 2 years of age when they first head out to sea and are somewhere between grilse and ‘parr’, another term connected to salmon. This is the stage where they still have dark cross stripes. Parr is not allowed to be fished. In American Atlantic waters there are four distinctive species of Salmon known as ‘Atlantic 481

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion Salmon’, ‘Pink Salmon’, ‘Silver Salmon’ or ‘Coho Salmon’ and ‘Sockeye Salmon’ or ‘Red Salmon’. But no matter where from, if you are buying a whole Salmon, ensure the scales are bright and silvery, its gills red and the overall fish quite firm and shiny. You can do almost anything with Salmon cooking-wise. Good to broil/grill, boil, made into a stew, fried, baked, en croûtes, pickled, potted and smoked. It is very good either hot or cold. SALMON/SALMON BASS: South Africa = See KABELJOU SALMONBERRY: Fruit = An American wild bramble or raspberry, ‘Rubus spectabilis’, found mainly in the west from California to Alaska, though has been brought into England and has large, salmon- coloured to wine-red drupelets. It can be used in any recipe calling for raspberries and resembles the loganberry in its conical shape. SALMONELLA: Condition = A rod-shaped bacterium that can easily affect foods such as fowl and their products, making them a health hazard to eat. It is therefore seriously advised to avoid possible cross-contamination of other foods by using a separate cutting board and knives when preparing fowl and to sterilise any surface with bleach after use. Cook fowl or fowl products fully before consumption to kill any possible bacteria. Leave stuffing a chicken, turkey or other fowl until the very last moment before placing it in the oven for roasting so the stuffing does not get contaminated. Avoid buying an already stuffed uncooked chicken. While buying such may add to convenience, it also adds to contamination. SALMONETE: Spanish = See RED MULLET SALMON TROUT: Salt-water Fish = This rainbow trout in South Africa starts off in fresh water through cultivation and is shifted into a sea farming environment. It has become quite a popular fish th since production began well into the last quarter of the 20 century and is increasingly gaining importance in restaurants. It is a delicately-flavoured, plump, firm-fleshed fish that is harvested at about 30cm (12in), when it is at its most succulent. Any trout recipe applies. SALMUERA: Spanish = See JELLY SALPICON: French Cooking = A preparation made up of one or more ingredients cut into small dice and bound with a sauce, whether rich or plain, white or brown, savoury or sweet. A finely-diced mixture of a variety of food bound in a sauce, which can be anything e.g. fish, fowl, meat, fruit or vegetable.Used as a stuffing or garnish for small finger tartlets or vol-au-vents. In Spanish the word ‘salpicon’ means hash. See HASH SALSA: Spanish/Mexican/Italian Cooking = The word means a fresh tomato-salad-type sauce served with finely-chopped raw onions, chillies (per taste) and cilantro. It usually consists of chopped tomato and onion and is chilli-based (Spanish sofrito), with or without cilantro as a garnish, though other ingredients can be added such as garlic. SALSA DI POMIDORO: Italian Cooking = Tomato Sauce fresh or cooked. SALSA VERDE: Italian, Mexican, Spanish Cooking = Green herbed sauce. SALSICCIA: Italian = See SAUSAGES SALSIFY: Vegetable = Origin: Europe: A root vegetable, Tragopogon porrifolius, also known as ‘oyster plant’ or ‘vegetable oyster’ because of its distinct flavour. Often the root is left in the ground over winter and the fresh growths (chard) that sprout in spring are then used as spinach. It has grass 482

    Heidemarie Vos like leaves, purple flowers and an edible taproot that is eaten as a vegetable and looks like parsnip. It is best scraped and parboiled to fork-tender in acidulated water. It can then be further processed as fritters, au gratin, glazed, sautéed, or served chilled with vinaigrette. It can also be simply cut into pieces, boiled in salted water, cooled and marinated in a salad dressing and served as a salad. Black salsify, ‘Scorzonera hispanica’, has more flavour and is not as chewy as the white salsify. See SCORZONERA SALT: Condiment = Sodium chloride, a colourless, white crystalline solid produced all over the world either through the evaporation of seawater (sea salt) or by mining rock salt (halite). Salt was used for bartering in ancient times along the trade routes and was as good as currency. It was also used to pay salaries, so “being worth your salt”, stems from this period. The word salary comes from the Latin word ‘sal’, meaning ‘salt’. So it’s not surprising to see ‘Sel’ (French), ‘Salz’ (German), ‘Sale’ (Italian), and ‘Sal’ (Spanish) in use. Aside of culinary usage, which has been, and is still its most essential role, salt is used in the manufacture of caustic soda and other chemicals produced in laboratories for melting ice on roads and curing hides is often provided for deer, sheep or cattle in the form of a ‘salt lick’ in winter and is also used in certain dishwashers to clean the system and prevent streaking of glass and cookware. When it comes to life itself, salt is indispensable. A deficiency can cause illness a severe deficiency can cause death but excessive salt intake is equally as harmful as it can cause high blood pressure, even kidney failure. It is recommended that you do not exceed 1 teaspoon (5ml) of salt intake per day. Culinary uses: It has been used in preserving food since ancient times either by directly applying salt to the food or in brine (salt solution). It is used in just about all savoury food preparations as it brings out the flavour, though some sweet dishes may have a pinch of salt added to them. It is also used to draw out bitter or sharp juices, e.g. eggplant, radishes. Add salt to vegetables to keep colour. Owing to the difference of strengths and concentration, less sea salt is required to rock salt. Salt tends to toughen foods hence beans (pulses) are salted after cooking grilled and roasted meats should also only be salted after the cooking process. There are some exceptions as with split pea soup, where salt can be added at the start of the cooking process. Split peas being very fragile are prone to disintegration during cooking. For crispier preserved vegetables or preserved cucumbers, also known as ‘pickles’ (American usage) and ‘gherkins’ (British and South African usage), the cucumbers and other vegetables are often brined before being fully salted other times the process is reversed, giving a totally different texture to the cucumber and vegetables. Salt will keep indefinitely. A few kernels of uncooked rice added to a saltshaker will keep it from lumping and sweating during high humidity as salt does absorb moisture. Do not store it in silver or in any other container with a silver top as it will be affected by the chlorine in the salt it will start to corrode and go green. See ROCK SALT/ SEA SALT. SALT, OTHER USES: = Wash vegetables, such as globe artichokes, Swiss chard, broccoli, etc. in a cold, weak salt water solution to get rid of mites or any other pests, then rinse in cold, clean water. To clean a wooden cutting board, dip half a lemon into salt, then rub it down and rinse it disinfects as well as bleach. When spilt food starts to smoke on a hot stove-plate, shake salt on it, which will prevent further smoking. For cleaning glass vases prepare a solution of 1 tablespoon (15ml) of salt and 1 tablespoon (15ml) of vinegar fill it fully with warm water allow it to soak for several hours then rinse the vase with clean water. SALT COD, DRIED: Caribbean/Mediterranean/Norwegan Cooking = Salt-cured and dried codfish, also known as ‘baccalà’ (Greek), ‘bacalhau’ (Portuguese), ‘bacalao’ (Spanish). It needs to be soaked for quite a while (24 hours), with its water changed several times in order to be rid of the heavy salt taste and also to reconstitute the severely dehydrated flesh. Salt Cod is available in some supermarkets or food specialty shops. SALT HERRING: English Cooking = Cleaned, gutted whole herring maintained in a strong salt solution. Requires soaking in fresh water with frequent changes of water over a 24-hour period to become palatable. 483

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion SALT PETRE: Culinary Term = Used in preserving meats, e.g. pork, corned beef, etc. An ordinary kitchen chemical available at pharmacies. SALTED BLACK BEANS: Chinese Cooking = These pea-sized black beans are partially dried and preserved in salt. They impart a somewhat sour, pungent taste to dishes that actually gives them a very interesting flavour. Used as flavouring for various dishes, fish, pork, etc. SALTED EGG: Chinese Cooking = Known as ‘Preserved Duck Egg’, ‘hahm don’ / ‘hsien dan’ Chinese. Raw preserved eggs, which require cooking, having a delicate salty taste and used as a binding agent for cooking. Are available at Chinese Grocers. Substitute hen’s egg. SALTED JELLYFISH: = See JELLYFISH, DRIED SALTI-BARSCIAI: Lithuanian Cooking = The Lithuanian twist to cold Borscht soup is dressed with hot cooked potatoes flavoured with dill and onions. The soup is garnished with sour cream, strips of julienne cucumber and chopped fresh dill. SALTINE: American Cooking = A very common, square, salted dry biscuit usually used to accompany soups or used as a snack. SALVIA: Italian/Spanish = See SAGE SALZ: German = See SALT SAMAKI KAVU: Traditional East African Cooking = From East Africa. Salt Cod and Peanut Curry. Made with reconstituted salt cod, tomato, oil, chopped onion, curry powder, ground and unsalted peanuts, boiling water and ground black pepper. Soak salt cod overnight, change water several times, then boil in fresh water until done, drain. Stir-fry tomato in oil with onion and curry powder. Make a paste of ground peanuts and boiling water. Add to the tomato mixture, blend, and add cod and season with pepper. SAMBAL: Indian/Indonesian Cooking = Side dishes and condiments which are small quantities of sweet or savoury things like fruit, nuts, or very hot sauces, to complement the main dish. Sambals (Indian Cooking) = An accompaniment to the main meal e.g. chopped mint, yoghurt, grated coconut, sliced banana, chutney, chopped cucumber. Considered more like a little salad. It is customary to serve several sambals at a curry meal. SAMBAL BAJAK: Indonesian Cooking = Fried chilli paste. A condiment for Indonesian rice and curry, a combination of chillies and spices, a hot relish with nuts. Also spelt ‘sambal badjak’, from the old Dutch-Indonesian order. It is used as a condiment and much like sambals. Different recipes exist from mild to hot. They all seem to have strained tamarind juice, onion or shallots, chillies and ‘Kecap manis’ in common with varied other ingredients, giving the saucy paste an individualistic taste. SAMBAL KEJAP: Indonesian Cooking = Hot soy sauce. SAMBAL OELEK: Indonesian Cooking = A hot paste-like mixture of chillies and salt used in cooking and as a condiment or flavouring. Also spelled ‘sambal ulek’ or ‘olek’, from the old Dutch-Indonesian relationship. Commercially produced but can easily be made at home by pureeing red-hot chillies, sugar, oil and vinegar. Recipes do exist. You should only add a little chilli paste to food at a time until the desired hotness in a dish is achieved, as the paste is quite hot so be aware. 484

    Heidemarie Vos SAMBOURAS: Traditional Cape Malay Cooking = From South Africa. A crisp cookie/biscuit usually graced with sugared currants. Made into a stiff dough which can be rolled and cut into rectangular shapes, with yellow sugar, butter, oil, cardamom, ginger, rose-water, eggs, flour, baking-powder and salt. SAMBUCA: Liqueur = Italian. Clear and anise-flavoured, this liqueur is normally served with a whole roasted coffee bean. SAMOSA/SAMOOSA: Cape Malay/Indian Cooking = A triangular, cone-shaped, savoury, deep-fried pastry, usually with a combination of ground beef or lamb with potatoes, peas and combination vegetable filling inside also known as ‘Kheema’. SAMOVAR: Russian Cookware = A metal charcoal burner. It is a large urn fitted with an inner tube and a base for the coals, used for tea, soups etc. and is reminiscent of the Chinese/Mongolian Hot Pot. SAMP: Traditional African Cooking = From South Africa, also known as ‘ngqusho’ (Xhosa). There are many traditional recipes for cooking samp: ‘Samp and Nuts’ (made with peanuts), ‘Samp and Beans’ (samp mixed with cranberry or speckled beans) and ‘Savoury Samp’ (made with beef stock cubes and butter beans). It is a stew made from roughly cracked hominy (large white maize kernels). As samp is the staple in the indigenous community, it is used as the Asians would use rice or the Italians their pasta or polenta. The list of varied samp recipes could go on and on. It is normally served with any kind of gravy and meat and is excellent with oxtail, stewed pork trotters, lung bredie, tripe and beans or is curried. All these meat dishes are used in traditional African cooking. See CORN SAMPHIRE: Vegetable = A fleshy-leafed green plant that grows along seaside marshland. Crisp textured, its flavour is quite salty and is best used in salads or enhanced with butter and eaten like asparagus accompanied by fish and boiled potatoes. Also known as pickle-plant or glasswort. SAMNA: Lebanese Cooking = The same as Ghee (Clarified Butter) SAMSA: = See BAKLAVA SAMSOE: Danish Cheese = Is a mild, firm yellow cheese, with a scattering of holes, mildly sweet and quite hearty with a nut-like taste. Its brownish-yellow rind is stamped with what appears to be a Danish trademark. SANDIA: Spanish = See WATERMELON SAND PEAR: = See NASHI PEAR SAND POTS: Chinese Cookware = Sandy-coloured natural sand clay pots, which are only glazed brown inside, they are reinforced with wire from the outside. They come with quite a thick handle and a separate lid (also glazed brown) and can be used stovetop or in the oven for casseroles. Usually available in Chinatowns or Chinese Specialty Shops, they are fun to use and are a nice change and adventure from using normal western casseroles. SAND SMELT: = See ALTHERINE SAND SNAKES: = See EEL SAND UINTJIES: Vegetable = Origin: South Africa. The underground stem of ‘morea edule’, a blue- white iris, which blooms in the wild at the beginning of August. Its corm considered ‘veldkos’ and used in traditional indigenous cooking. 485

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion SANDWICH: Culinary Term = Usually formed by placing a filling between two slices of bread can also be made up of several layers (club-sandwich) or on one slice of bread (open-faced sandwich) and can be small or large on any kind of grain-shaped bread, toasted or fried. Though sandwiches were popular peasant food in Europe long before the coining of the word, they were then referred to as ‘topped bread’, ‘Belegtes Brot’ (German) which today is still consumed for the traditional evening meal (Abend Brot = evening bread). The actual word ‘sandwich’ did not come into being until the th eighteenth century and its invention is attributed to John Montague, 4 Earl of Sandwich, who, as a keen gambler, would order his food enveloped in bread, allowing him to eat and remain at the gambling table. This was duly noted and reported on. From that day forward the sandwich became all the rage amongst upper classes. Dainty sandwiches even started to appear for afternoon ladies’ teas with all sorts of savoury fillings, including sliced cucumber. A sandwich is easily made, bundled off and thus portable. It can hold an endless variety of fillings. Also known colloquially as ‘samie’ (South Africa) and ‘butty’ (England), the word remains ‘sandwich’ in French and becomes ‘Panini imbottiti’ (Italian) and ‘Pan cecina’ (Spanish). SANG TSOW: Chinese Cantonese = See SOY SAUCE SANGLER: French Culinary Term = Surrounding an ice-mould, set into a wooden bucket, with densely packed crushed ice or an ice-salt mix in order to promote freezing. SANGLIER: French = See WARTHOG/ WILD BOAR SANGRIA: Culinary Term = A wine and brandy-based punch, flavoured with sugar and cinnamon and decorated with sliced citrus fruit e.g. lemon and orange. Recipes vary. SANGUINACCO: Italian = See BLACK PUDDING SANSHO: Japanese Cooking = The Japanese name for Szechwan pepper, a ground, tangy spice of green-brown colour distinctive to the Orient. See SZECHUAN PEPPER SANTA FE GRANDE: = A Chilli. See YELLOW CHILLI PEPPERS SAPODILLA: Fruit = The fruit of this American tree ‘Achras sapota’ looks like a brownish lemon with grey tones. The reddish-blushed, yellow-fleshed fruit is very sweet. Commercially grown in Java where it is highly treasured and is known as ‘Sawo Manila’, it is also known as ‘Naseberry’ (American) and as ‘Nèfle d’ Amérique’ (French). The tree produces the sap ‘chicle gum’. The granulated pulp, textured like damp brown sugar, can be eaten raw or used in desserts. Closely related to ‘Sapote’, which has similar qualities and is usually used for sorbets. See CHICLE GUM SAPORITOS: Italian Culinary Term = Savouries, Savories as hors-d’oeuvres. SAPOTE: = See SAPODILLA SAPSAGO: Swiss Cheese = Looks like a small, solid, light green cone with its bottom cut off. This dense, very sharp, low-fat cheese is made from whey, skim- and buttermilk, enhanced with pulverised leaves of clover. If not eaten as a table cheese, it would serve well as flavouring. SARDELLE: German = See ANCHOVY SARDINES: Salt-water Fish = Of the ‘Clupeidae’ family known as ‘Sardine’ in French, German and Italian and as ‘Cerdeña’ (Spanish). They are half grown herrings and are usually tinned/canned, either preserved in oil, mustard or tomato sauce as ‘Sardines’ or ‘Pilchards’ though one can also relate to 486

    Heidemarie Vos them when in larger form as ‘Bismarck herring’, ‘Bloater’, ‘Red herring’, ‘Salt Herring’, ‘Bückling’, ‘Kipper’, ‘Pickled herring’ and ‘Rollmops’. As a very small sardine they are known as ‘Sprats’ and ‘Whitebait’, at which point they are often confused with anchovy, which is similar but of a different family. It is quite phenomenal to witness a ‘sardine run’, especially along the coast of South Africa or off the Peruvian coast, where the sardines come so close to the beach, you can stand to not even knee- high on the Durban’s city beaches and just scoop them out from the water’s edge in buckets as they pass. Mind, sharks like them too. The ocean teams with these densely-packed shoals, turning the water an incredible silver colour. What a spectacular sight! If you can get hold of fresh sardines, they are delicious barbecued. The Portuguese have taken eating fresh sardines to a fine art right in the harbour on the water’s edge. The fishermen’s wives wait every morning each with a small hibachi, bread and wine or beer, ready to barbecue some of the catch when the colourfully-painted fishing boats come back from a night’s fishing at sunrise. Sardines lend themselves to being fried, grilled, baked and smoked, soused or pickled. You can use them in any recipe for Herring, Sardine or Mackerel. Sardines should be eaten either for breakfast or lunch as they take 5 hours to digest, hence are not good at evening meals. The same goes for any kind of herring. SARDINE STEW: Traditional African Cooking = From Benin: salt-dried fish can be substituted. Made with onion, garlic, oil, sardines, tomatoes, tomato paste, chilli, bunch of leafy greens. Served over stiff porridge. SARRASIN: French = Farine de Sarrasin. See BUCKWHEAT SARRIETTE: French = The herb ‘Savory’. SARSON: Spice = See MUSTARD SEED SARTÉN: Spanish = See FRYING PAN SASSATIE: American misspelling = We are not talking about 2 different South African dishes here. The correct spelling is Sosatie. See SOSATIE. SASHIMI: Japanese Cooking = The name given to a platter of a joint collection of different types of raw fish, fine-sliced fish fillets and/or shellfish, as opposed to sushi being mainly varied flavoured rice, and / or vegetables with rice, shaped and garnished in a different manner. Fish suitable for sashimi: tuna, salmon, kingfish, ocean trout, snapper, whiting, bream or jewfish. Present and serve with julienned daikon and carrot, soy sauce and wasabi. Care should be taken if there is a problem of salmonella in your area that requires special cleaning and handling. One way of killing the normal everyday parasites in fish is to flash-freeze them before cutting them for sashimi. Also see WASABI/WASABE. SATAY: Thai/Malay Cooking = Fine slices of meats, fish or shellfish placed on very small wooden skewers, then grilled. Usually served with a dipping sauce such as peanut sauce. SATÉ: Indonesian Cooking = Very popular national dish, which is also street-food and served on festive or any other possible occasions. It is also the national dish in Malaysia, where it’s known as ‘satay’. Can be seafood or cubes as well as strips of meat, skewered onto bamboo sticks and barbequed. Served with a hot, spiced peanut sauce. The various satés are known by their own names, such as: ‘ayam’ (boneless, garlic marinated chicken in soy sauce) ‘daging’ (strips of marinated meat) ‘kambing bumbu kecap’ (marinated mutton or goat, with the addition of prawn/shrimp paste in the marinade) ‘padang’ (heart, liver or tripe marinated) ‘udang’ (prawns/shrimp coated with a mixture of prawn/shrimp paste, ground nuts and chilli). No matter what variety, they are all skewered and are all barbequed and peanut sauce is always the accompaniment. Saté and peanut-sauce is quite ‘addictive little wonder it’s a national passion! 487

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion SATSUMAS: = See NAARTJE SAUBOHNE: German = See BROAD BEANS SAUCE AUX FEUILLES DE PAPATES DOUCES: Traditional African Cooking = From Burkina Faso. Means fish with Sweet Potato Greens. Any other sorts of greens (spinach) can be substituted but sweet potato greens are quite delicate. Made with dried salted fish, onions, garlic cloves, tomatoes, tomato paste, chillies, oil, okra, sweet potato leaves and nutmeg. Served with stiff porridge. SAUCEPANS: Cookware = These come in a series of different sizes, ranging anywhere from 1 litre (4 cups) to 4 litres (16 cups) capacity and in a variety of metals. Saucepans are lidded, straight-sided cooking pots, which may have either one long, upward-angled handle or two handles on either side. The same pan with two grip handles on either side would be classified as a cooking pot. A wide saucepan, which holds up to 8 litres (32 cups) would be used for cooking stews, allowing one to brown meats easily for that purpose. A lipped saucepan is very useful to have when pouring hot liquids to another vessel. They too come in a variety of sizes and metals. SAUCER: French Culinary Term = To pour sauce over or around prepared food. SAUCES: (French word derived from ‘sal’ = salt) It is a liquid or semi-liquid garnish of various consistencies to dress either savoury or sweet food. It can be hot or cold, sweet or spicy it is to lend flavour, moisture and a fine aroma to dishes and make food taste and look better. A sauce can be just about anything, from simple melted butter to a velvety ‘Velouté’. There are 5 foundation sauces vital to Classic French and western cooking. All came into being in the eighteenth century. They are known as ‘Grand Sauces’ or ‘Sauces Mères’, which are then embellished upon providing a wide array of flavourful and interesting recipes. The first two sauces created were ‘Béchamel’ and ‘Mayonnaise’. Later in that century the other three were created: ‘Velouté’, ‘Roux Blonde’ and ‘Roux Brune’. Chef Carême, a forerunner of Chef Escoffier, called the ‘Blonde’ ‘Notre Allemande’ and the ‘Brune’ ‘Notre Espagnole’ to ensure the world would recognise them as French sauces and were so named due to their colour. Carême and his followers produced fabulous, rich and tasty, but heavy, complicated sauces. Their main concern appeared to have been masking the food as much as possible as there was no refrigeration. Food often started to deteriorate in freshness during transportation or storage. These staple five sauces are still the bases of many sauces today. Carême is known to have produced many sauces, some of them quite spicy. The best known of them are ‘Périgueux’, ‘Chevreuil’, ‘Bourguignotte’ (now known as Bourguignon), ‘Piquante’, ‘Hollandaise Sauce’ and ‘Sauce Supreme’. All in all, these sauces disguised the flavour of whatever food they accompanied. Escoffier on the other hand took a totally opposite view when it came to sauces. He liked simplicity and wanted his sauces to bring out the flavour in food, not smother it. He believed in ‘essences’ and ‘fumets’, which is stock used for cooking food in, whether it is milk-, water- or wine-based. Whatever the liquid was, it was allowed to simmer slowly and reduce to concentrate the flavour. These fragrant, condensed liquids became the base of modern sauces and are much more popular than flour-based sauces as they are also easier to digest. More in the recent past, Asian cooking has influenced and vastly widened the spectrum of sauces being used with ‘chow’, various ‘dipping’, ‘soy’, ‘fish’ and ‘peanut’ sauce Italian ‘pesto’, Spanish ‘salsa’, Indian ‘raita’, as well as unusual marinades, relishes, dips and dressings which have all influenced the food renaissance in western kitchens experienced today and added a whole new way of thinking about sauce. All act as a sauce in one-way or the other. Escoffier and all these other influences have taken us out of the of the heavy sauce era. See individual listings of important sauces by their name. The word is the same in French and German as in English, with ‘salsa’ being used in Italian and Spanish. SAUERBRATEN: German National Dish = A marinated (pickled) piece or pork, the longer the pickling the better. It may be shoulder, round or chuck of pork that is then roasted with whatever recipe 488

    Heidemarie Vos is suitable to your taste. It can also be a marinated, (soured), beef on bone pot roast. There are many different recipes, as it’s definitely a top-ranking national dish. The marinade renders even the toughest cut quite tender. Honestly, anything would be if pickled for days! SAUCISSE: French = See SAUSAGES SAUERAMPFEN: German = See SORREL SAUERKRAUT: German Cooking = Shredded white cabbage preserved in salt. See PICKLED CABBAGE SAUERTEIG: German = See LEAVEN/SOURDOUGH SAUGE: French = See SAGE SAUMON: French = See SALMON SAUMURE: French = The aromatic, spiced or salted brine used for pickling foods. SAUNF: India = See FENNEL (Herb/Spice) SAURY FISH: Bermuda = See BLUEFISH SAUSAGES: Processed Meat = Known as ‘Saucisse’ (French), ‘Wurst or Würstchen (German) or ‘Würsterl’ (Austrian), ‘Salsiccia’ (Italian), ‘Salchichón’ (Spanish) and ‘Wors’ (South African). This covers a large variety of meat mixtures that are encased either in intestine or plastic. They come in all different shapes and sizes, fresh or dried, salted or smoked, cooked or uncooked, coarse or smooth, cut or spreadable. Sausages go back to early Greek and Roman times. Cookbooks from the Middle Ages in Europe recommended that all edible meat, be it wild or domestic fowl, game, cattle or fish, be worked into sausage for preserving purposes and also, for it to serve as an alternative to the roasts. A starchy substance known as ‘filler’ or ‘cereal’ usually binds certain ones aside of meat, fat, herbs and seasoning. Fillers didn’t come into use in the manufacturing of sausages until much later, as most sausages were either smoked or dried due to no refrigeration. However, fillers can be breadcrumbs, rice, oats, or a variety of flours. They are prepared much like a meatloaf mixture before being further processed. A lot of commercial sausage mixtures contain cuts of meat one wouldn’t dream of eating. But then again, they are usually so well ground up one doesn’t realise what is in them e.g. the Hot Dog, also known as ‘Frankfurter’ or ‘Wiener’ (though the hot dog is a far cry from the real German Frankfurters or Austrian Wieners). If you are at all squeamish at the thought, there are plenty of sausage recipes in books to make your own from preferred cuts of meat. Sausages made at home do not necessarily have to be in intestinal casing. You can form and wrap them in caul for instance, or roll and tie them securely in cloth or foil before cooking, or make them into a patty and fry them up that way. See individual listings for various ready-prepared sausages, which are not all by any means, but a good many are available in shops. SAUSAGES, CHINESE: Processed Meat = Also known as ‘lap cheong’. They are dried, spicy pork sausages with both lean and fat. Usually steamed until reconstituted, when the fat becomes glassy they are done then thinly sliced and can be served sliced or used in other dishes. SAUTÉ PAN: Cookware = Sauté pans are heavy, straight-sided pans, about 8cm (3 inch) deep, though more recent models have the sides slightly curved in at the top. This is to prevent food from jumping out when it is tossed in the pan. There should be extra sturdy handles in order for the tossing-shaking action of the food to occur comfortably. One thing to remember about sautéing is not to bunch the food together so one would want several sizes of this type of pan to accommodate different quantities 489

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion of food. The French name is SAUTEUSE. SAUTÉ PAN, OVAL: Cookware = This pan is usually oval with low inclining sides for pan-frying. It is mostly used for sautéing fish or other long pieces of food, e.g. filets of fish or beef. It is just deep enough without it being a poacher. SAUTEED ALMONDS: Traditional African Cooking = From Morocco: a snack food, simply made by sautéing peeled, salted almonds until they are a deep golden colour. Do not singe! Good rule of thumb is about 30ml (2 tblsp.) of salt to 500 ml (2 cups) of freshly peeled almonds to 250ml (1 cup) of oil. The almonds are salted before being sautéed and can be further spiced with chilli powder when taken out of the pan to drain. See PEELING ALMONDS SAUTER: French Culinary Term = To pan-fry food quickly in small amounts of fat over high heat whilst tossing and shaking it to ensure even browning. It is a very fast-cooking process as sauter (sautéing) is very similar to ‘stir-frying’ in some aspects. SAUTEUSE: French Cookware = A sauté pan. SAUTOIR: French = The technical difference between the ‘sauteuse’ and the ‘sautoir’ is that the sides for the latter slant outward. They are used interchangeably and a sensible substitute is a heavy frying pan. SAVARIN: French Cooking = A rich yeast cake baked in a ring mould which has been soaked in a syrup flavoured with liqueur. It is chilled and served with cream. SAVARIN MOULD: Cookware = Also known as a ‘ring mould’, it is a fairly low round pan with a large open centre and a capacity of 1.25 litres (5 cups). It’s made of tinned-metal and can be used both for baking or chilling foods. It is said that a special yeast cake baked in it was to have been named after Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, a French epicurean. SAVOIARDI BISCUITS: Australian Confection = Italian-style crisp sponge fingers also known as ‘sponge fingers’, ‘lady’s fingers’, ‘Savoy Biscuits’ and ‘Boudoir Biscuits’. SAVOIE: French = See SAVOY SAVORY: Herb = There are two types of savory, summer and winter also known as ‘bean herb’. The two are quite piquant and can be used as a salt substitute. Winter savory is the stronger of the two. See POIVRE D’ ÂNE SAVOURY: Culinary Term = A flavourful, tasty little pleasure in the form of an appetiser. Savouries are preferred with cocktails or pre-dinner drinks as opposed to anything sweet. SAVOY BISCUITS: = See SAVOIARDI BISCUITS SAVOY: Vegetable = Also known as ‘Chou de Milan’ (French). a very popular cabbage that has been around for a long time. Its crimped leaves identify it. ‘Savoy’ is also the name of a biscuit-like sponge cake ‘Savoie’ (French). SAWO MANILA: = See SAPODILLA SAY ENDO: Japanese = See SNOW PEAS 490

    Heidemarie Vos SCALD: Culinary Term = Refers to bringing milk up to its first froth, just under the boiling point of 85ºC (185º F). (Actual boiling point being 100C/212F) The term is also used for plunging vegetables, such as tomatoes, by ‘scalding’ them in boiling water to remove their skins and is then normally known as ‘blanching’. SCALE: Kitchen Tool/Utensil = It is an instrument or machine for measuring the weight of food. SCALES: Culinary Term = Small plate-like, protective dermal or epidermal structures character- istically forming the external covering of fishes not to be confused with the skin. To scale means to remove this outer layer of coating from fish. SCALLIONS: = See SPRING ONIONS SCALLOP: Culinary Term = Baking food in a cream sauce or other liquid. It is also a shellfish with white flesh and orange roe (also known as coral). Its fluted shell is used for serving the scallop and other foods, particularly ‘Coquille St. Jacques’. To scallop means to flute pastry edges. Further, in American usage it also refers to medallions of meat. See PORK/ VEAL/SCALLOPINE SCALLOPINE: Italian Cooking = Sometimes written ‘scaloppini’, these are small, thin medallions of meat, usually pork or veal, and are no more than about 7-8cm (3 inches) in diameter. They can be round or square, and weigh about 30g (1 oz.) each. Allow 4-5 medallions per person. SCALLOPS, DRIED: Chinese Cooking = Known as ‘gong y chu’ / ‘gan bei’ (Chinese). These amber- coloured, shrivelled, dull- textured bi-valves have a very fishy scent with a strong, fishy, sweet taste and chewy texture. They are sold loose and keep indefinitely in a tightly-covered container. SCALLOPS/SCOLLOPS: Bivalves = Also known as ‘Coquille St. Jacques’, ‘Pétoncle’ or ‘Pélerin’ (French). Any of a number of molluscs of the family ‘Pectinidae’, which have fan-shaped shells, with a beamed, fluted pattern and rippled edges. The large sea scallop is from oceans, whereas the small bay scallop can be found in Atlantic estuaries and bays. Both are tender and sweet and considered a delicacy but the Sea Scallop is the better of the two. They are available freeze-shelled, or fresh in or out of the shell. If bought already shelled, ask the fishmonger for the shells. If bought in the shell, make sure they are all fully closed. The heavier they are the larger. Scrub the shells, then place rounded side down either on a hot stove-plate or into a hot oven on a baking tray. As soon as they show signs of opening by themselfes lift the top shell off with a knife, take out the flesh and cut the beard and intestinal string away. The flesh should be white and firm with bright orange coral. Rinse flesh and roe, drain, dry and use per your favourite recipe. (Some prefer scallops without coral. In the United States all shelled scallops are sold without coral). The empty shells should be scraped of residue, be cleaned by boiling, retained, and used as serving saucers for scallop dishes such as ‘Coquille St. Jacques’ or other seafood requiring to be elegantly served. Scallops are suitable for baking, frying, grilling, poaching and stews. Note: The shells are dishwasher- safe. SCAMPI: Crustacean = The Italian term for certain prawn/shrimp. Can also be a dish of prawn/shrimp cooked in a garlicsauce. See LANGOUSTINES SCANDINAVIAN COOKING, GENERAL: = The countries that make up the area we know as Scandinavia are really quite different from one another yet there is a common threat that runs through their cuisines, which is based on what is available locally. Most of that is fish, game, cheese, root vegetables, cabbage, mushrooms and berries. The tables in winter are laden with hearty stews and summer with cold buffets. Only here and there will some domesticated animal make it into a dish. Denmark is perhaps the most different from its Northern neighbours as its cuisine shows a strong influence of German cooking with pork being a very important food. Finland, is linked languagewise to Hungary through a common root but that connection does not really come across in its cuisine. 491

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion Yet, between fish and game and what grows on its lack of agricultural land, it has devised many interesting dishes. Iceland is the most barren land but has the advantage of volcanic steam that heats residences and its hothouses alike, producing a good supply of vegetables, which are eaten just about totally with fish. Herring and cod are the two staples. It is therefore a delicacy for a dish of lamb or reindeer to appear occasionally on the table. Norway is mainly cod and potato country. Pork, when it does appear, is normally fashioned into sausages. Their rendering of ‘koldbord’ is not quite as extravagant as that of its Swedish neighbour with its lavish ‘smörgasbord’, of which one can only say: “It’s not just a buffet but an affair” and a wonderful, long-lived institution. Swedish cuisine seems to have more on offer all round in a variety of fish, meats, game and vegetables, though the potato figures greatly as does the ‘lingonberry’. SCARLET MONARDA: = See BERGAMOT (Herb) SCENTED GERANIUM: Herb = This amazing plant comes in an array of scents and flavours, such as almond, apple, apricot, cinnamon, coconut, peppermint and rose, etc. Used for jellies, in salads, to flavour sugars, as well as breads and biscuits/cookies. SCIROPPO: Italian = See SYRUP SCHALE: German = See PEEL/PEELING SCHAUM: German = See FOAM SCHAUMTORTEN: German = Also known as meringues, pinch pie, Vacherin Ring, Windtorte and lastly as pavlova. SCHELLFISH: German = Haddock. SCHIACIATTA BREAD: Italian Cooking = A flat bread, brushed with olive oil and sprinkled with fresh garlic, parsley and rosemary. SCHIENA: Italian = See SADDLE SCHINKEN: German = See HAM SCHINKENWURST: Processed Meat = German smoked, cooked ham sausage specifically from Westphalia. SCHLAGSAHNE: German = See WHIPPED CREAM SCHLEMMERTOPF: German = See CLAY POTS SCHLOSSKÄSE: Austrian Cheese = It’s a soft, light yellow, mild cheese with a wrinkled skin. Schlosskäse is a good table cheese. SCHMALTZ/SCHMALZ: German/Jewish Cooking = Melted animal fat, such as beef, pork, chicken, goose or duck used as food. In Jewish cuisine it refers especially to rendered chicken fat. SCHMORFLEISCH: German = Braised meat. See BRAISE/BRAISING SCHNAPPS/SCHNAPS: Culinary Term = Any of various strong liquors (spirits), which do not otherwise fall into any other category. The word is derived from the German ‘schnapps’, and the 492

    Heidemarie Vos liqueur comes in many different flavours, e.g. peppermint, peach etc. SCHNECKE: German = See SNAIL SCHNECKEN: Confection = Means ‘snails’ in German, but in this instance it is sweet cinnamon rolls that have been cut and coiled into the shape of a snail shell. It can also mean ‘escargot’ (French) which is the edible snail mollusc served with snail butter usually as an appetizer. Schnecke is singular and Schnecken is plural. SCHNITTLAUCH: German = See CHIVES SCHNITZEL: German/Austrian Cooking = A thin boneless cut of veal lightly dusted in seasoned flour, then egg- and- bread-crumbed and fried in butter, much like scaloppini. Variation of preparation: ‘Vienna Schnitzel’ which is meat put into egg and bread-crumbs, then fried, and ‘Schnitzel Holstein’ which is a Vienna Schnitzel with a fried egg on top, sometimes garnished with capers and anchovies. See COLLOPS SCHOKOLADE: German = See CHOCOLATE SCHOLLEN: German = See PLAICE SCHWANZ: German = See TAIL SCHWARTZ-KÜMMEL: German = See FENNEL (Herb/Spice) SCHWARTZWÄLDER KIRSCHWASSER: German = Black Forest Kirsch Liqueur. See KIRSCH SCHWEIN: German = See PORK SCHWEINEFETT: German = See LARD SCHWEINSFÜSSE: German = Pork trotters / Pig’s feet ie for Eisbein. SCHWEINSRIPPE: German = Pork chop/cutlets SCIROPPO: Italian = See SYRUP SCOLLOPGOURD: = See CUSTARD MARROW SCONE: British Cooking = A soft teacake, now often a rich baking powder biscuit, sometimes containing currants or cheese. It’s a round soft doughy pastry. In Scotland, it’s a thin cake of oatmeal baked on a griddle. In the USA it would be on the similar order of a breakfast buttermilk biscuit. SCOOP: Kitchen Utensil = A small, shovel-like utensil, having a short handle and a deep curved dish for dispensing food supplies, e.g. flour, rice, etc. It can also mean a long-handled utensil with a round bowl, e.g. a ‘ladle’ or ‘dipper’ for dishing out liquids. A ‘moulding scoop’ is made of stainless steel and has a squeeze handle. It has a half disc in its bowl, so when the handle is squeezed, the disc moves and dispenses a ball of soft food, e.g. mashed potatoes, rice, etc., in an exact, measured, clean rounded form and is sometimes used for ice-cream. The actual ‘ice-cream scoop’ is thick-handled and very sturdy, and although it is in the form of a scoop, it is more for the purpose of scraping the ice cream into the scoop so it will form into a ball. The different models include one that can be filled with hot water to ease cutting through the ice-cream. 493

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion SCORE: Culinary Term = To mark the surface of, e.g. meat, with incisions, usually with parallel cuts to cut shallow slits into the surface of food, mainly for increased tenderness or to enhance with seasoning and also to prevent a rind or layer of fat from curling and to render the fat crispier, creating crackling. Creating a diamond pattern or squares on cakes, pies and even calamari is all considered scoring. SCORZA: Italian = See PEEL/PEELING SCORZONERA: Vegetable = Origin Europe. ‘Scorzonera hispanica’ is also known as ‘Scorzonère’ (French). A highly underrated root vegetable, classed as black-skinned Salsify root with a sweet- tasting white flesh. As with Salsify, it should experience at least one frost to make its flesh better. It is not as fibrous as Salsify and has more flavour. Prepared like Salsify or Parsnip. SCOTCH BONNET: Chilli = It is slightly milder than habanero, to which it is related, but not by much. Very hot 9-10 and laced with a tasty fruit flavour. It looks like a little cap and is essential along with the Jamaican hot for “jerk sauce” and Caribbean curries. This pale yellow-green orange to red in colour chilli is also used for hot condiment sauces. SCOTCH BROTH: Scottish Cooking = A barley soup with bits of mutton and vegetables, e.g. onions, carrots, leeks, peas, turnips, cabbage, parsley a thick soup, not what is normally understood as a broth. SCOTCH FILLET: = Sirloin steak (American) SCOTCH WHISKY: Spirit = Origin: Scotland. Translated from Gaelic it means ‘water of life’. ‘Whisky’ (without the e) was a name given to this drink by the English. Distilling Malt Whisky dates th back to before the 15 century as by then production was well underway in the Highlands. It was a ferocious, smoke-flavoured infusion made in pot stills that clan chieftains fiercely supervised. Battles were fought as to who could make the drink as much was done illegally. The Lowlands produced a much milder whisky, and blending the two types started in the 1860's. Most Scotch whisky is made up of blends. ‘Single malt’, and there is still a selection of labels around, means unblended pure whisky stemming from an individual distillery. Single malt whisky should not be drowned, but taken neat (meaning no ice, etc.), though just a tiny splash of water is said to bring out the scent. SCOTCH WOODCOCK: Scottish Cooking = Seasoned scrambled egg on buttered toast, garnished with anchovy fillet and capers. SCOTLAND’S CULINARY CONTRIBUTIONS: = Aside of oats and grains, Haggis and dishes like Cock-a-Leekie, Scotland has shared its culture with the world in the way of some wonderful dishes, confections and spirits. The more commonly known are: Scotch Broth, Barley and Mushroom Casserole, Scotch Eggs, Shortbread, Butterscotch, Scotch whisky and Drambuie. And where would we all be without the wonderful Scottish Salmon? SCOURING PADS: Useful Kitchen Extra = Also known as ‘abrasive pads’, used like steel wool to scrub aluminium/aluminum or stainless steel pots and pans. This will scratch the metal and other surfaces - so don’t do it! Instead, soak the pot in hot soapy liquid or boil it and only use a ‘non- abrasive’ nylon pad. It will clean just as well without scratching. SCOVILLE HEAT UNITS: Culinary Term = Named after pharmacist Wilbur Scoville who invented a scale to measure the heat of each unit of ‘capsaicin’ (the chemical responsible for a pepper’s heat), which is mainly concentrated in chilli pips and inner membranes. The red savina habanero was the 494

    Heidemarie Vos hottest chilli tested in 1994 measuring a substantial 577,000 Scoville Units. Scientists in India claim they have found a much hotter chilli then that, they called Naga Jolokia. When tested this chilli came in at a blistering 855,000 Scoville Units. As it is too difficult for the home-cook/chef getting hung up about the Scoville Units, for simplicity’s sake we measure chillies for cooking between 1-10 because there are many factors that can affect the Scoville Unit measurement. There could also be a strain of cross-pollination. It also has to do with soil, a plant’s genetic background, fertilisation and watering. It’s quite possible to pick up a few medium-heat chillies at a local market, e.g. jalapeño, and find one mild and the others with blistering heat. Scoville Units are mainly used in agriculture, agronomy and horticulture and give University professors in those studies something to do! SCRAG: = See VEAL/LAMB’S NECK SCRAMBLED: Culinary Term = Mainly applied to eggs, which have been sufficiently stirred or whisked together for the egg white and egg yolk to amalgamate. SCRAPPLE: American Cooking = Known as ‘ponhaws’ by the Pennsylvania Dutch,. this is diced pork, onions, cornmeal, herbs and spices, slowly cooked then cooled, sliced and fried. SCREWPINE: = See PANDANUS SCUP: = See PORGY SE GWA/SI GWA: Chinese = See OKRA, CHINESE SEA BAT: South African = See BATFISH SEA CAT: South African = See OCTOPUS SEA CUCUMBER, DRIED: Chinese Cooking = See BÊCHE-DE-MER SEA DACE: = See BASS SEA DEVIL: American = See ANGLER/ANGLER-FISH SEA EARS: British = See ABALONE SEAFOOD: Culinary Term = Is used for salt-water fish, shellfish (bivalves and univalves), crustaceans, cephalopods or any other kind of sea animal, e.g. sea turtle, sea cucumber, sea urchins, etc. It excludes sea birds like penguins. People who have an allergy to a certain type of seafood should stay well away from it. Having an allergy to one type of seafood does not mean that one necessarily has an allergy to all seafood unless one is iodine intolerant. The way to tell if one has an allergy is by very simply observing if one gets itchy eyes or ears within about an hour of consuming whatever type of seafood one has eaten, though one can break out in an itchy rash or welts as well. At this stage, one should never touch that particular seafood again as with each time the symptom increases and has been known to cause swelling of the trachea (windpipe), and in severe cases, to the point of needing a tracheotomy to be able to breath. Other general things to know about seafood are: always make sure your seafood is fresh, with no strong fishy odour. It should have the scent of a fresh sea breeze. In the case of fresh fish, the eyes should be bright, the gills red and the flesh firm. Shellfish should not be open before cooking, and not stay closed after cooking. In either case discard. (If there is a fisherman in your household, enough should be known about the catch. It should not come from some harbour, lake or river near factory-waste and sewage pipes or some other pollutants in the area. You should also know how to ‘bleed’, ‘scale’, ‘clean’, ‘skin’ and ‘fillet’ fish for freezing, as well as what fish not to eat, e.g. ‘Blowfish’ or what roe and liver of certain fish not to use, e.g. ‘Shark’ due to the very high 495

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion concentrated Vitamin A being toxic. (These are things that the fishmongers or supermarkets normally take care of.) SEA KALE: Vegetable = Known as ‘Sea-Kail’, ‘Sea-Cole’, ‘Cranson’ (French), it is of the cabbage family it grows wild along the seacoast of most of Europe right through to Turkey and is usually steamed, boiled or stewed. It is also force-cultivated and bleached for its stalks to be eaten like celery. In the past sea kale has been used against scurvy. SEA KALE BEET: = See CHARD SEA KALE CABBAGE: = See COUVE TRONCHUDA SEAL: Culinary Term = To seal moisture into meat, by browning it off in a very hot pan thus searing or singeing it. To seal pies and stuffed pastas, wet the edges with water or egg wash. It also means using water dough, or foil as a sealant for a pot to prevent seepage of moisture between the lip of the pot and lid, thus sealing it. SEA MOSS: = See CARRAGEEN SEA PERCH: = See BASS SEA PIKE: South African = See BARRACUDA SEAR: Culinary Term = To seal in meat’s juices by browning the surface of meat quickly over medium to intense heat. Always heat the pan first for better results. SEA SALT: Compound = Achieved by extracting it from seawater by way of straight diminishing of liquid or through factory method by way of saline density in saltpans. It can contain other trace elements and salts. Any iodine it may contain vanishes when stored. It is ⅓rd sodium chloride. Port Elizabeth, South Africa, is renowned for its saltpans, with the pink flamingos somehow always finding something in them for nourishment. The clean crystals are usually large but come in variable grades of fineness. Sea salt lacks the harsh aftertaste associated with table salt (rocksalt). In order to use sea salt for the table use a salt mill. When purchasing commercially-milled sea salt, magnesium carbonate will have been added for damp rejection and to improve its flow. Sea salt is also known as ‘gros sel’ in France and is estimated to come from the Bay of Biscay. ‘Maldon salt’ is English sea salt from Maldon, Essex. This is believed to be the finest English sea salt and owing to its soft, very salty crystals, can be applied to food directly without milling. ‘Sel gris’ is a somewhat drab-looking, but weak French sea salt. It is the commonly used salt in French kitchens. ‘Kosher, or koshering salt’ is coarse sea salt that has been gained and processed strictly per Jewish religious laws governing ‘kosher’ food. Salt by any other name is either sea salt or rock salt so do not allow yourself to become confused and realise that mixed salt (e.g. lemon or garlic salt) is not the same as pure salt from either sea or rock sources. SEA SNAKE: Water Reptile = Aboma de Mar (Spanish) found in Central and South American Pacific coast. However, different species are found in most oceans. SEASONED FLOUR: Culinary Term = Pepper and salt is added to the flour, as well as whatever strikes your fancy, e.g. chilli, thyme, oregano, etc. SEASONED SALT: = See ROCK SALT SEASONING: Culinary Term = Anything used to flavour food, e.g. salt, pepper, herbs, spices in order 496

    Heidemarie Vos to improve the flavour the process by which something is seasoned, including the use of aromatics. SEASONING A METAL COOKING VESSEL: = This encompasses mostly cast-iron or rolled steel pots, sauté and omelette pans, woks, potjies, kettles and roasters. Even good stainless-steel should be treated before use as per manufacturer’s instructions. ‘Seasoning’ a metal cooking vessel will keep food from sticking to the pot or pan, and prevent hot-spots, unless of course it is Teflon or otherwise non-stick coated, making seasoning not necessary. Before using a wok, cast- iron pot or other pans made of either metal, wash the item thoroughly and dry completely. Pour a little bit of salad oil in its centre and distribute the oil in the vessel with a few pieces of paper towel and fully rub the oil into the pores of the entire inside. As the paper towel will discolour, use a fresh batch of towel and continue to rub the inside of the pot, pan or wok’s oiled surface until the towel appears clean and no further dark metal residue can be detected on the paper towel. Then pour a little more vegetable oil in the bottom of the pot, pan or wok and place this into a low heated oven or place it over low heat stovetop for an hour. Let it cool and rest for about 8 hours. You can now use the vessel. To clean after subsequent use, rinse with hot water only (do not use soap or steel wool), scrub lightly with a nylon pad if necessary and dry immediately on the stove or in the oven. When cool, oil lightly and store. Should the cooking vessel have food encrusted, soak the inside of the pot in hot water only (no soap) until the encrusted food comes off easily. You may have to re-season the vessel. Always deglaze your cooking vessel immediately after removing food while it is still hot. This will remove all the crusty bits on the bottom of the pan. SEASONING A WOODEN SALAD BOWL: = After purchase, wash it in warm soapy water, and then dry completely. Rub a clove of garlic into the wooden grain, then, with paper towel, rub salad oil (sunflower) or olive oil into the wood. Let rest and repeat this procedure a few times. Allow the oil to soak into the wood each time. Before use, quickly rinse in cold water and repeat the above procedure. After use, rinse in cool water and rub any remnants of oil into the wood. Never allow a wooden bowl to stand in water or use soap in cleaning it. SEA URCHINS: Echinoderms = Of the ‘Echinoidea’ class, with a soft body enclosed in a round, symmetrical limey shell covered with long spines. Known as ‘Katamoi’ (Japan). There are many species of urchins, such as the ‘Pacific red sea urchin’, which is large, and the smaller known as ‘green sea urchin’. They occur in all oceans. The only thing edible is the roe which is said to be a gastronome’s delight eaten raw or sautéed. Some foodies are said to be so crazy about the roe that they arrive at the seashores fully equipped with pruning gloves, shears, salt, cayenne pepper, lemon, a bottle of white wine, as well as butter and crackers or bread. This, per aficionados, is best done under a full moon at spring tide, as the roe must be eaten very fresh. One can’t get it any fresher than that! SEAWEED SHEETS, DRIED: Oriental Cooking = Also known as ‘nori’ or ‘laver’ and ‘jee tsoi’/ ‘tze tsai’ (Chinese). These are 8 inch (20cm) square, green-purplish flat sheets with a stiff, dry and brittle texture that becomes soft and limp when cooked. It has a strong iodine aroma and is used mainly in soups in Chinese Cooking. The almost black Japanese variety is known as ‘hair seaweed’ and ‘faat tsoi’/ ‘faat tsai’ (Chinese). They are available at Chinese or Japanese markets or some specialty food shops. Known as ‘asakusanori’ in Japan. SEA WOLF: = See BASS SÉBILLES: French = Wooden salad bowl. See SALADIER SEDANO RAPA: Italian = See CELERIAC SEEHAHN: German = See GURNARD SEEZUNGE: German = See SOLE 497

    Passion of a Foodie – An International Kitchen Companion SEIGLE, FARINE DE: French = Rye flour commonly used for ‘pain-d’épice’ and basic country bread. SEL: French = See SALT SEL-ÉPICE: French = ‘Spiced salt’ is a specific salted spice mixture pulverised together, containing the following: 600g (20oz) salt, 6 bay leaves, 1 tablespoon (½ oz) peppercorns, ½ teaspoon (¼ oz) each of cloves and nutmeg and ¼ teaspoon (⅛ oz) each of cinnamon, dried basil and coriander. The ingredients must all be equally powdered and should be put through a fine sieve to remove unequal pieces and repeat the pulverisation process. Finally blend the mix and store in an airtight container in a dry place. SEL GEMME: French = Rock salt. SEL GRIS: French = Called ‘gros sel’. See SEA SALT SEL MARIN: French = Sea salt. SEL RAFFINÉ: French = Refined table salt SELF-RAISING FLOUR: = Made in proportions of 125g (1 cup) of all-purpose flour (plain flour) to 10ml (2 tsp) baking powder. Known as ‘Self-rising flour’ (American) SELLE/SELLE DE CHEVREUIL: French = Saddle saddle of venison. See SADDLE SELTZER WATER: General Term = Origin, Neider Selters in Germany carbonated mineral water. SELVAGGINA: Italian = See VENISON SEMI DE MELONE: = See PASTA FANCY FORMS/SHAPES SEMILLA DE PANA: Puerto Rican = See PANA SEMMELKNÖDEL: Bohemian/Austrian/German Cooking = Are huge almost bread-sized dumplings made with bread and croutons and some flour and egg. They are best sliced with white sewing thread into even portions when cooked. A paprika-based pot roast with a sour cream sauce should accompany them. SEMOLA: Spanish = See SEMOLINA SEMOLINA: Grain = Known as ‘Semoule’ (French), ‘Griess’ (German), ‘Semolino’ (Italian), ‘Semola’ (Spanish) and ‘Farina’ (USA). It is the polished, then ground kernels of Durum wheat, which is a very hard grain. Used in Italy for making pasta, it’s also used for making couscous in North Africa. Durum wheat offers a better flavour and resistance to the bite than when cooking with normal wheat. See WHEAT SEMOLINO: Italian = See SEMOLINA SEMOULE: French = See SEMOLINA SERPOLET: French = Wild thyme. SENCHA: Japanese = Green Tea leaves. 498

    Heidemarie Vos SEN MEE: Thai = See RICE VERMICELLI SEPARATE: Culinary Term = To take one part away from the other, as in separating the egg yolk from the egg-white, or separating the fat from a broth though sauces can separate, meaning the smooth consistency is disturbed. Milk can separate into curd and whey, etc. SERA: Hindi = See LEMON GRASS SERAI: Malay = See LEMON GRASS SERBIAN SEASONING MIX: Yugoslavian Cooking = This mix is good with pork and is considered a national treasure. Mix in a jar 3 tablespoons each of fennel seeds and salt, 1 tablespoon each of ground white pepper, coarse black pepper and sugar. (Another recipe requires 2 tablespoons of sugar, though you could dispense with sugar all together). Mix in a jar. A variation would be with caraway, or anise seeds instead of fennel. SEREH: Indonesian = See LEMON GRASS SEROBE: Traditional African Cooking = From South Africa: mixed offal, made with large tripe and small tripe (ntsutwana), lungs, small intestine, boiled in water, seasoned with curry powder, salt and pepper. Served on ‘mieliepap’ mixed with fried cabbage. SERPENTARIA: Italian = See TARRAGON SERRANO: Chilli = Mexican - They are darker and more slender than the jalapeño or Fresno chilli however, they are a very good substitute for each other. Heat 7. Seranno literally means ‘mountain’ or ‘highland’ in Spanish and is a very common chilli. Red and green ones can be used interchangeably, though the red will be a bit sweeter. They are best roasted, pickled or fresh in salsas and sauces. Either red or green Serrano can be substituted for a Thai chilli in a ratio of three fresh serranos to one Thai. SERRANO HAM: Spanish = See JAMÓN SERRANO SERRATED KNIVES: Kitchen Tool/Utensil = A bread knife is best serrated does not require sharpening and is designed so it will not crush the soft fibres of bread when slicing it. Tomatoes or soft fruit are also best cut with a small, serrated knife. The tip should be pointed and sharp in order to cut through hard to pierce skins at the start of slicing. SERVICE BERRY: Fruit of the ‘Sorbus domestica’ (Service tree) closely related to the ‘Sorbus auccuparia’ (Mountain Ash). The ‘Service tree’ bears larger flowers and berries than the ‘Sorb’ in England and the Whitebeam in Scotland or any species of Shadbush, which are single-stoned, purple- hued fruit resembling quite a large blueberry, though they are actually in the rose family. These berries also include Saskatoon, Juneberry, Shadbush, Shadbloom and Sarvisberry. Though not spectacular when eaten fresh, they can be made into excellent jams, pies etc. Substitute for ‘Rowan-berries’. SERVING PLATTERS: Serving Vessel = The main serving platter should be huge and every household should have at least one to serve a large gathering. Regular-sized platters are for serving only two, possibly four people. Don’t squash food onto a platter and make it look lumped together. Think of presentation! It requires enough room for a turkey, large roast, or a whole good-sized fish, with dressing and all the trimmings to fit without looking crowded. For a very big platter, if not available in stores, find a potter and have him/her make up one. Earthenware, ceramic or porcelain, it really doesn’t matter as long as it’s big. Even if you only serve 1 or 2 pounds of cooked spaghetti mixed with vegetables on it, at least have it look generous and 499

    Wednesday, 15 May 2013

    Recipe - Venison Sausages with Puy Lentils

    Browsing the farmers' market at Castle Terrace this weekend, I picked up some venison sausages from Seriously Good Venison. One of many great producers from Fife, there's no fear of what's in their sausages, simply venison, pork fat, oatmeal and a little spice mix, all wrapped up in natural casings. This venison is lean, healthy and responsibly farmed, and not just at home in winter stews or sliced seared and rare at dinner parties. It's ideal for everyday cooking too.

    I browned the sausages in a Le Creuset before cooking scraps of onion, carrot and celery found in the fridge. For this recipe I planned to use up a lot of vegetables and pulses I already had in, so I bought these sausages to meat-up the meal. After the first tranche of veg went chopped peppers, tomatoes, tomato puree and wine, then back in with the sausages. To this I added vegetable stock and a mix of green and Puy lentils, what I happened to have in the cupboard. You could use all of one kind, I prefer Puy, they are quicker, prettier and tastier.

    Venison Sausages with Puy Lentils

    The sausages, vegetables and lentils are simmered for 20-30 minutes, till cooked. The sausages, which I worried could be dry and overcooked, were perfect, cut through with a little juicy fat against the wholesome peppers and lentils. Even though summer approaches this is a brilliant casserole for drizzly Edinburgh days. The sausages, lentils and the basic method are all you need the vegetables can be adapted according to what you have available. Of course, it is a lot tastier with the flavours and colours from the garlic, celery, tomatoes, and wine, but don't let that put you off! Sausages and lentils are a classic combination, so if you don't have venison on your doorstep get the best pork or beef ones you can find. The red-meatiness of the venison works well as an alternative to pork so beef should be great too.

    Venison Sausages with Puy Lentils

    Serves 2 with seconds and scraps/Serves 4 with bread


    one packet venison sausages
    olive oil
    one small white onion finely chopped
    two cloves garlic sliced
    one carrot diced
    one celery stick chopped
    bay leaf (fresh or dried)
    sprig of thyme
    one and a half diced peppers, any colour (I used a half of three)
    two tomatoes, roughly chopped
    small glass of white wine
    one tbsp tomato puree
    500ml vegetable stock
    200g Puy or green lentils (also haricot beans would work well. a mix works if you are using up cupboard scraps but probably works better with one type of pulse)
    Salt and freshly ground black pepper

    To serve

    crusty bread
    flat leaf parsley, roughly chopped


    • Heat a casserole dish medium high. Add a splash of olive oil, then brown the sausages for a few minutes in the oil. Transfer to a plate and keep safe.
    • Add the onion, garlic, carrot, celery and herbs. Season and cook at a low heat with the lid on to soften.
    • After about ten minutes your kitchen should be smelling great! Add the peppers and tomatoes. Give everything a good stir, turn up the heat and add the wine. Let it bubble for a moment, then add in the tomato puree, stir through and cook for another minute.
    • Put the sausages back in the casserole, pour over the stock and lentils. Bring to the boil, then simmer for 20-30 minutes till the lentils are cooked. You may need to add a splash of stock or hot water, depending on how greedy your lentils are. Adjust seasoning to taste - this can take a good bit of pepper.
    • Sprinkle over the parsley and bring to the table. Serve a couple of generous ladles each on a trencher of crusty bread.


    Using Spanish gin infused with a unique mixture of botanicals, this reinvented classic has a grown-up bitter backbone and subtle spiciness

    This year sees a growing trend towards more savoury cocktails, like this red snapper &ndash gin's answer to the bloody Mary. Olive oil specialist Arbequina & Co has launched a range of flavoured cocktail oils to complement savoury drinks.

    This works particularly well with Med-inspired Gin Mare as the arbequina olive is one its key botanicals &ndash and the oil contains the other Mediterranean botanicals in the gin: rosemary, thyme, and basil. As well as adding texture and flavour to cocktails, the oils can be used to complement cheeses and grilled vegetables. For stockists, email [email protected].

    Red snapper

    SERVES 1 PREP 5 mins EASY

    10ml Worcestershire sauce

    pinch of Fleur de Sel sea salt

    a few drops of Arbequina (or other extra virgin) olive oil

    1. Pour all the ingredients into a shaker with six grinds of black pepper and a couple of handfuls of ice, and 'throw' the cocktail (see tip) between two shakers (or jugs) until chilled.

    2. Strain into a tall glass filled with fresh ice. Garnish with a tomato slice, celery ribbon, the salt and olive oil.

    PER SERVING 167 kcals &bull fat none &bull saturates none &bull carbs 7g &bull sugars 6g &bull fibre 1g &bull protein 1g &bull salt 1.5g

    Throwing a cocktail means to pour the mixture from one shaker with ice into an empty one. This chills, dilutes and aerates the drink all at the same time. Use a strainer or small sieve to prevent the ice falling out as you pour &ndash around four or five times should give the best result.

    Haggis and sweet pickled baby onion tartlets recipe - Recipes

    THE wines of Castello Banfi are generally characterised by a strong structure with full body, fruity yet low in sugar content. The grapes used in making the wines are grown along the slopes that lie between the medieval hilltop town of Montalcino in the region of Tuscany, Italy, and the Mediterranean Sea, and uniquely carry notes of fruits like lemon, banana and grapefruit that give the wines their aromatic hint.

    “ This is the uniqueness of Banfi wines which we have to retain. Wines are evaluated by the consumers’ senses, not by industry parameters. “Many a time, we drink wines without understanding what wine is and how it is to be approached. “Drinking wine is for pleasure it is not a must-have like water. The key concept we are investing in, through Castello Banfi wines, is that a wine must be a consumer’s choice,” explained the General Manager of Banfi, Enrico Viglierchio.

    Viglierchio will now visit MLH on 27th Feb for an exclusive Castello Banfi winemakers dinner organized jointly with Alpha Orient at the Maitland State Room.

    “ We like to minimize it to 40 guests with a six-course dinner featuring Italian cuisine from the regions of Tuscany and a few dishes synonymous to the Mediterranean Sea Regions especially created to match the selected wines.” The Price is set for LKR4500/-nett which includes food and beverage and an experience of a lifetime.

    The creations will be whipped up by our very own Italian Chef Riccardo Rossilli who has more than 10 years’ experience in Italian cuisine, and who is now the Executive Chef in Vakarufalhi: the Mount Lavinia Hotels and Resorts property in the Republic pf Maldives.

    As Anura Dewapura, the General Manager says “It is about putting diners in touch with other people, for some light hearted conversation over great food and wine. The first winemakers night was a great success hence we thought to continue is to make people happier. Some people would see it as a more relaxed form of networking accompanied by the chef and wine connoisseur to add some insights into the dining experience. So why not join us for a very special event when Chef Rossilli prepares a masterful, multi-course, gourmet dinner paired with Castello Banfi winning wines with our objective being to establish an unique experience that the discerning public can become involved in”

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    Mount Lavinia Hotel: Official Hotel for 15th Asian Junior Team Squash Championships in Colombo

    The 15th Asian Junior Team Squash Championships 2011 will be held in Colombo, Sri Lanka from 25 – 29 January 2011 at the newly constructed 06 court International standard Squash Complex of the Sri Lanka Air Force Base, Ratmalana.
    The 31st Annual General Meeting of the Asian Squash Federation is also billed to take place concurrently at the Official Host Hotel – The Mount Lavinia Hotel on 28 and 29 January 2011.

    Simultaneously, the World Squash Federation will hold its next Management Committee Meeting (Man COM) at the hotel on 26 and 27 January with key officer bearers from around the world, including the President of WSF, Mr. N. Ramachandran.

    Seen here:
    Mr N Ramachandran – President of WSF, Officials of the National Squash Federation: Mr Oliver Guruge and Jaliya Jayasekera flanked by Mahika and Mala of MLH.

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    Special Poya Day Vegan cuisine launched with five chief incumbents at MLH: a great initiative to celebrate the BUDDHA JAYANTHI 2011

    The year 2011 marks 2600 years since Lord Buddha attained enlightenment or Nirvana. Referred to as “Buddha Jayanthi” Buddhists all over the world and particularly in countries such as Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar, Bhutan, Tibet, and Laos – which are predominantly Buddhist countries – are preparing to celebrate this significant event in the religious calendar.

    Throughout 2011 there will be festivities and commemorative celebrations arranged in Sri Lanka. However, the celebrations are to reach a crescendo on May 17, when the moon is full, and Buddhists celebrate “Vesak” – the Birth, the Enlightenment and the Passing away to Nirvana of Lord Buddha. And indeed MLH commemorated by initiating the special poya vegan food fare which can be enjoyed every poya day for lunch.

    Maybe they think vegetarianism is a fringe interest, but the reality is that a majority of Sri Lankans are vegetarian or nearly so, and the figure is even higher for many other countries as foreign tourists are overwhelming in MLH. If you’ve traveled as a vegetarian before, you probably know some of the tricks, such as to look for ethnic restaurants. Indian, Chinese, Middle Eastern, and usually Italian restaurants all offer veggie options. In a Chinese restaurant, they’ll at least have one vegetarian dish called “Buddha’s Delight”, which is just vegetables and rice. Truly veggie-friendly with a multiple and exceptional vegetarian offerings was no doubt at MLH on Duruthu Poya Day and it is only offered at lunch time for approximately LKR2000.

    The Governor’s Restaurant had a generous vegetarian section on their lunch buffet menu. Vegetarians used to having to pick the one veggie item at a restaurant will be overwhelmed with the choices here. The atmosphere was also nice and the food was absolutely satisfying. Here are just a few to choose from:

    Cous Cous Onion Marmalade with Sun Dried Tomato on Tomato Caulis

    Char Grilled Marinated Bell Pepper with Stuffed Gorgonzola Cheese with Basil Mix Syrup

    Roasted Pumpkin & Fine Nuts with Feta Cheese Timbale and Forest Bee Honey Vinaigrette

    Smoked Eggplant Tower with Herb Marinated Feta Cheese Olive Tapenade & Basil Oil

    Roast Gratinated Eggplant with Stuffed Mozzarella & Tomato Concasse

    Celery Roots with Cream Cheese & Prunes Jelly Terrine

    Carrot & Raising Terrine with Orange Manmade

    Roasted Beetroot & Grilled Apple Tower with Mint Passion Fruit Horseradish Sauce

    Asparagus & Cream Cheese Roulade with Herb Pancake

    Sri Lankan Herbal Soup Bar

    Spinach Timbale / Carrot & Beetroot Timbale / Hommus / Babaganouch Cucumber Curd Pumpkin with Feta Cheese / Bavarian Potato Salad /Celery with Apple

    Vegetable Glass Noodle Salad / Japanese Raddish Salad

    Vegetable Chop Salad / Greek Salad / Coleslaw & Raising Salad / Kachumber Salad

    Cucumber, Grated Carrot, Cabbage, Pineapple, Variety of Lettuce

    Cherry Tomato, Vegetarian Sushi, Pate”, Terrines, Timbals

    Waldorf Salad / Marinated Fennel with Cherry Tomato Salad / Mutable

    Beetroot & Apple Horseradish Salad / Tubule / Hommus / Babaganouch

    Cucumber Yoghurt & Mint Salad / Spicy Lotus Yam Salad

    Raw Mango Salad with Mustard Vinaigrette / Thai Papaya Salad

    Sweet Potato with Coconut Salad / Korean Kimchi / Aloo Chart

    Vegetable Summer Roll with Peanut Sauce / Fruit Chart

    French Beans with Red Wine Vinegar Dressing / Marinated Olives

    Chickpeas with Fried Onion & Curry Leaves Salad / White Cabbage Pickle with Roasted Cumin & Red Raddish Salad

    Manioc with Turmeric Coconut Sambol

    Tempura Fried Vegetable with Sweet Chili Sauce

    Orange Dressing / Asian Dressing / Passion Fruit Dressing

    Curry Leaves Dressing / Mustard Dressing / Vinaigrette Dressing

    Organic Red Rice / Yellow Rice

    Soya Meat Curry / Polos Anama / Long Beans Tempered / Cadju & Baby Brinjal Curry

    Innala Kirata / Gotukola Sambol / Katurumurunga Leaves Malluma / Karankoku Sambol

    Dambala Tempered fried & cooked, Mukunuwenna Mallum, Kankun Breadfrouit curry, Manioc with Chillies & onions tempered

    Seeni Sambol / Lunumiris / Mango Chutney / Pol Sambol / Lime Pickle / Papadam

    Kottu Roti (Vegetable / Cheese)

    Naan, Parata,Godamba, Vegetable filling

    Mushroom sauté with Fresh Herbs

    Creamy Cheese Sauce / Fresh Tomato Sauce /Pesto

    Ulundu Wadai / Dosai (Masala / Plain)

    Singapore Wok Fried Noodles

    Tofu Steak with Teriyaki Sauce

    Pok Choy & Stir Fried Napa

    The day was indeed special as five chief incumbents namely: The five chief incumbents who launched the Duruthu Poya celebrations at MLH, UK based the chief incumbent of the Kingsbury Buddhist Centre Ven. Galayaye Piyadassa Thero, The Cheif Incumbent to the Maligakande Pirivena and the Editor of the Sinhala Dictionary and the Chief Incumbent of the Western Province Ven Akuratiya Nanda Thero, Chief Incumbent of the College of Buddhism in Maradana Ven Nagoda Amarawansa Thero, Kelaniya University Galgiriyagama Wimalananda Thero and from Nepal Tissa Thero, graced the occasion and was overwhelmed of the great initiative that was launched in a memorable year.

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    One of the Worlds Best Gathering Places now surfaces THE GOVERNOR’s BRUNCH on Sundays amidst Jazz to soothe your Sunday Blues

    Great British food means unfussy dishes made with quality local ingredients, matched with simple sauces to accentuate flavour, rather than disguise it.

    Historically, British cuisine has had something of a shocking reputation worldwide – for soggy vegetables, slap-dash sauces and over-cooked murky meat. Yet MLH our is now recognized as among the best in the world and their influence seems to be spreading to other hotels aswell. An exciting feature of British cuisine is its ability to absorb the cultural influence of those that settle in Britain. Now-national dishes such as chicken tikka masala, lasagne and spag bol come from this openness to accept and adapt, as does the innovative dishes as Kedgrec, etc. The most important meal of the week in a traditional British household is Sunday lunch. Served around 1pm-3pm, this family meal consists of a large joint of meat (typically Roast beef or a leg of lamb) roasted along with Birmingham Style meatloaf with creamy mustard sauce, Oxtail Soup /Haggis /Irish stew/Steak & Kidney Pie potatoes and served with boiled vegetables and the appropriate sauce – strictly apple with pork, horseradish with beef, and mint with lamb. There has been a recent revival in old and rare breeds such as Roast Wellington with jus and Bearnaise sauce, Traditional Roast Beef with Yorkshire pudding and Sunday Roast of the Day with Roast potato and Gravy – these are perfect for a succulent and tender roast, and indeed MLH has it all.

    Steamed puddings are a traditional choice for dessert – Mud Cake/Pancakes with raspberry jam/Apple and Cinnamon Crumpets/Country Style Fruit Flan/Summer Pudding/Chocolate Trio/Caramel Bread are among the favourites. Crumbles make a more popular choice these days. Try Rhubarb and Apple Crumble, has a deliciously delicate flavour Apple Black Berry Pie/Short Cake/Mini Tartlets/Apple Charlotte/Dundee Cake, and much more.

    The action stations that take a stance to English food Egg Benedictine and Egg Florentine with the hot corner spicing it up with Scottish Eggs/Welsh Rarebit, are just a few to mention.

    Brunch has become such a permanent fixture in British life that, precisely at 1100hrs AM every Sunday MLH, will transform it’s best gathering place with not only the ambience but also the food to British people’s delicacies. An international buffet spread with a leaning towards classic British cuisine is yours to journey through .

    Here are a few items to journey through:

    Beetroot salad with horseradish /Egg boats with shrimps and chives dressing

    Waldorf Salad/Chicken liver terrine with Black Currant drizzle

    Cole slaw with Colmans mustard/Rabbit Terrine with Pickled carrots

    Chicken salad with Gherkins/Smoked fish salad with tomato and Mayonnaise

    Winter Cress Salad/Pickled herrings /Pickled Mixed Vegetable/Pickled eggs

    Traditional Ham egg pie/Cabbage and raisin salad with orange

    Scottish Eggs/Welsh Rarebit

    Devonshire Crab Soup /Shropshire Pea Soup /Cock & Leek Soup

    Oxtail Soup /Haggis /Irish stew/Steak & Kidney Pie

    Chicken & Mushroom Pie /Cheese & Onion Pie

    Lancashire Hot Pot /Cornish Pastries /Roast Cornish Hen

    Shepherd pie /Sunday Roast of the Day with Roast potato and Gravy (Carving)

    Prime Rib Of Beef /Chicken in Cherry Sauce

    Chicken Tika Masala /Tandoori Butter Chicken

    Lamb Ragenjosh /Lamb Vindaloo/Pepper Steaks/Spice Silver Side /Sausage Station

    English Sausages (Variety of 1foot long on the Grill)

    Cottage Pie /Grilled Liver & Bacon/Roast Pork with Apples

    Traditional Roast Beef with Yorkshire pudding (Carving)

    Roasted Chicken Balmoral Style (Carving)

    Birmingham Style meatloaf with creamy mustard sauce

    Roast Wellington with jus and Bearnaise sauce (Carving)

    Potato and Bacon Gratin /Pan fried filet of fish with capers and beetroot

    Poached white Fish with hollandaise /Kedgerec /Baked Trout

    Minted Broccoli with Almonds /Mushy peas/Cauliflower Gratin

    Baked Beans /Black Pudding /English Muffins

    Sage Onion Bread/Selection of Muffins & English Muffins

    Pickle Lillie /Pickle Gherkins /Pickled Red Cabbage

    Apple Black Berry Pie/Short Cake/Mini Tartlets/Banana Cake

    Apple Charlotte/Dundee Cake/Fruit Trifle /Queens Cake

    Carrot Cake/Pound Cake/Coffee Fudge/Honey Cake

    Mud Cake/Pancakes with raspberry jam/Apple and Cinnamon Crumpets

    Country Style Fruit Flan/Summer Pudding/Chocolate Trio

    Caramel Bread and Butter Pudding/Baked Cheese cake

    Rhubarb And Apple Crumble/Fruit Pavlova/Juggery Pudding

    English Trifle / Date Pudding

    And for all who still crave for the New Orleans food. Saturday nights with Jazz under the stars, New Orleans food will be the soul.

    Posted in Events | Comments Off on One of the Worlds Best Gathering Places now surfaces THE GOVERNOR’s BRUNCH on Sundays amidst Jazz to soothe your Sunday Blues

    Mount Lavinia Hotel: Official Hotel for 15th Asian Junior Team Squash Championships in Colombo

    Colombo. Tuesday 18 January 2011. The 15th Asian Junior Team Squash Championships 2011 will be held in Colombo, Sri Lanka from 25 – 29 January 2011 at the newly constructed 06 court International standard Squash Complex of the Sri Lanka Air Force Base, Ratmalana.

    The 31st Annual General Meeting of the Asian Squash Federation is also billed to take place concurrently at the Official Host Hotel – The Mount Lavinia Hotel on 28 and 29 January 2011.

    Simultaneously, the World Squash Federation will hold its next Management Committee Meeting (Man COM) at the same hotel on 26 and 27 January with key officer bearers from around the world, including the President of WSF, Mr. N. Ramachandran arriving in Sri Lanka to enjoy the peace dividends won after a 30 year old war.

    A total of 23 teams from Asian Squash Federation’s member nations are billed to take part in this international event. Among them are Malaysia, Hong Kong, India, Pakistan, China, Singapore, Japan, Korea, Chinese Taipei, Jordan, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq and hosts Sri Lanka.

    This major event is being sponsored by Ceylon Biscuits Limited, makers of Ritzbury Chocolates, Sri Lanka’s No. 1, along with the Ministry of Sports. It has attracted a record number of entries, in fact higher than all other previous Asian events.

    Senior Brand Manager’ of Ceylon Biscuits Limited Nilupul De Silva said, “As the sponsor of the Junior National Squash Championship for the last three years, Ritzbury is proud to be associated with the Asian Junior Team Squash Championships which is to be held in Colombo. This is a great opportunity for our players to compete with the best talent in the region and further develop their skills. I wish the championship all success”.

    Sri Lankan Airlines is the ‘Official Airline’ of the 15th Asian Junior Team Squash Championships 2011, while the Mount Lavinia Hotel has come in a ‘Official Host Hotel’ providing many facilities at concessionary rates.

    A delighted President of the Sri Lanka Squash Federation Oliver Guruge said, “Sri Lanka is both happy and proud to host this important event in the international squash calendar. With a 30 year civil war behind us, and adverse travel advisories now contemporary history, Sri Lanka is once again regaining its position on the world’s tourism map. These championships come at an opportune moment when the Government of Sri Lanka is taking all measures to actively promote the country not only as a tourist destination, but also as a multi-faceted destination for sports tourism, health tourism, religious tourism, cultural tourism and more”.

    “The game of squash has, at the same time, has seen a tremendous resurgence both in terms of public interest and popularity in Sri Lanka during this past two years. Needless to say we have been greatly, encouraged by the record number of entries for all tournaments conducted by the SLSF during this period”, he added.

    CEO of SriLankan Airlines Manoj Gunawardena said, “Sports Tourism has always taken top billing in our global agenda as SriLankan Airlines constantly and actively promotes the geographical diversity Sri Lanka is well known for. The SriLankan Airlines Pro recentlywas one such example where over 120 surfers from around the world converged on the Arugam Bay with the East Coast attracting international endorsement as the best venue for water sports. SriLankan Airlines is proud to fly in squash players, delegates and officials from several countries to Colombo and thus extend our support to the burgeoning popularity of this game both locally and regionally”.

    General Manager of the Mt. Lavinia Hotel Anura Devapura said that the Hotel was privileged to be associated with an international sporting event of this magnitude. “There’s already a buzz about the forthcoming 15th Asian Junior Team Squash Championships as Sri Lanka is gaining international recognition as a destination for sports tourism”.

    “This is the second international sports event of this calibre that we are proud to be in partnership with. The first was the Asian Under-16 Junior Badminton Continental Championships in 2009, and now this, as the Mt. Lavinia Hotel becomes hospitality partner for sports events. As this event is committed to unite, develop and nurture the youth of Sri Lanka with bonds and indeed friendship through the sports arena, Mount Lavinia Hotel too endorses its commitment to the goodwill of our nation by supporting sports events”.

    Chief Guest at the opening ceremony will be Minister of Sports Hon. Mahindananda Alutgamage while the Air Force Chief, Air Chief Marshal Roshan Goonetileke will be Chief Guest at the Awards Ceremony at the Air Force Base, Ratmalana and give away the awards.

    Among the strong Sri Lankan contingent are this country’s top ranked junior players. The 15th Asian Junior Team Squash Championships 2011 are expected to feature some great squash and memorable performances of a very high standard, especially with the participation of top ranked players from 14 countries. The main draw will be held in the presence of top players from Pakistan, Malaysia, Hong Kong and India.

    “We’re thrilled to note that squash has attracted large numbers of players among all age groups in Sri Lanka. Our wish is to see Sri Lanka emerge as a major squash playing nation in the region in the not too distant future”, Guruge concluded.

    Media Contact

    President Sri Lanka Squash Federation Oliver Guruge – 777777 997

    Secretary Sri Lanka Squash Federation Jaliya Jayasekera – 0717 310026

    Kumar de Silva – 0777 379 973

    Tharindra de Silva – 0777 560 611

    Posted in News | Comments Off on Mount Lavinia Hotel: Official Hotel for 15th Asian Junior Team Squash Championships in Colombo

    Modern Australian flavours blended to the kitchen brigade at MLH with Chef Asanka from Aussie

    Modern Australian cuisine involves the mixing of completely different ethnic traditions. Potent Asian flavors such as lemon grass, coriander, chili, and cardamom can be blended into many European dishes. Chef Asanka, the newest addition to MLH’s kitchen brigade now surfaces this unique dining experience.

    Having gained his cooking experience from Australia, Chef Asanka had a flair for modern Australian cuisine and is inspired by Matt Moran – a top celebrity Chef from Australia. After being an Executive Chef in a star class property in Melbourne he decided to head to his home country and indeed to MLH

    As strange as it may sound, sometimes it is possible to be too creative. No where is this more evident than at MLH when this modern flavours can be experienced. Chef Asanka creates his own recipe than refine another chef’s recipe which has proven itself to be liked by guests the world over, As a consequence, odd recipes like Asparagus/Wild mushroom and Cabernet jus find their ways onto dinner tables when really they should find their ways into another cooking style. As his philosophy in his cooking style is: simple, fresh with flair

    His worked with Ashley Mark Benson – Roxborough Park Hotel in Melbourne, Virendra Bisht – Smoken Joes Café in Moonee Ponds, Warren King –Ivanhoe Hotel in Ivanhoe, Michael Lambi – Taxi Dining Room – Modern Australian and Japanese cuisine.

    Variety is the spice of life is the motto to modern Australian cuisine. A blend of Mediterranean and Asian ingredients to work with when creating recipes, and these being combined into imaginative ways is Chef Asanka’s verdict. For example, Roasted Gibsland Eye Fillet with confit Asparagus/Wild mushroom and Cabernet jus or Confit Ocean trout with warm salad of sautéed potatoes/rocket and hazelnut and Chardonnay cream, Roasted King Prawns, seared scallops, salad of asparagus, micro herbs, confit tomato and spices, are just a few to mention that he conjures up.

    MLH indeed thrives on the statement the “world at our doorstop” when they surface worldclass cooking styles for you to experience, it’s not surprising that they have now surfaced Modern Australian cuisine the ultimate fusion of Asian and Australian flavours to you to venture. Visit MLH from the 24 th to 30 th Jan to indulge in the Australian week in conjunction with the National Day event of the Great Australian BBQ on 26 th and 29 th Jan dedicating the night to first Slow Food night for 2011 Australian style — you won’t be disappointed.

    Posted in News | Comments Off on Modern Australian flavours blended to the kitchen brigade at MLH with Chef Asanka from Aussie

    Discover Baja California and innovative South Beach Cocktails in Jan at MLH

    With summer all year round, luscious tropical fruits, is center stage when it comes to the creation of cool and innovative cocktails just like in South Beach Florida. Chillies mixed with raspberries as in the Chillie raspberry martini and jalapeno-infused vodka blended with mango vodka and hot peppers. And maybe to cool down, South Floridians savor the watermelon mojito and corporate types love to unwind with the Black martini. Discover the exoticness of a pomegranate and cranberry Bellini, a watermelon margarita and Southern Comfort punch..

    Then the ideal food to blend in well with the cocktails is all types of “Fresh Mex”or cuisine of California. This is the greatest set of hot food ever assembled! Each flavor captures the essence of the California Baja region in flavor and heat! Hot Sauces Smoky, thick, Sweet. And a slight hint of chocolate. De Arbol Hot Sauce: Close your eyes and picture the quintessential hole-in-the-wall Baja taco shop with the unique fish tacos. Fiery, authentic taco shop style hot food literally brimming with Hotacado Avocado Hot Sauce, tasty originals combining two staples of Baja – avocados and fresh, sun-ripened jalapenos. Of course, you’ll also taste that signature Scorpion Bay kick!

    Although “the Baja”, as it is affectionately known, Virtually ignored in discussions of regional Mexican cooking, Baja nonetheless continues to produce some of the finest and freshest seafood dishes found anywhere, and the creativity which has blossomed in recent years is reflected now at MLH. The highlight of the Baja delicacies is to season the food without masking the pure, natural flavor. Types of fish and shellfish which have, for generations, been cooked over fires in fishermen’s camps on the beach have taken well to the refinements of Baja food.

    “ If you favor the idea of not cooking them at all, as in ceviche, in which the seafood is “cooked” by marinating in lime, will also be on the cards,”states Mr Anura Dewapura, General Manager of Mount Lavinia Hotel.

    Whether you snag your fish with rod and reel or with a supermarket cart, the following recipes may bring back fond memories for those who have been to the Baja, or whet the appetites of those yet to experience its beauty.

    a re just a few to savour.

    Posted in News | Comments Off on Discover Baja California and innovative South Beach Cocktails in Jan at MLH

    New years eve party – Mardi Gras

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    New years eve party – Glamour

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    Ultimate fusion of Asian and Australian flavours with Chef Asanka at MLH

    Modern Australian cuisine involves the mixing of completely different ethnic traditions. Potent Asian flavors such as lemon grass, coriander, chili, and cardamom can be blended into many European dishes. Chef Asanka, the newest addition to MLH’s kitchen brigade will surface this unique dining experience.

    Having gained his cooking experience from Australia, Chef Asanka had a flair for modern Australian cuisine and is inspired by Matt Moran – a top celebrity Chef from Australia. After being an Executive Chef in a star class property in Melbourne he decided to head to his home country and indeed to MLH

    As strange as it may sound, sometimes it is possible to be too creative. No where is this more evident than at MLH when this modern flavours can be experienced. Chef Asanka creates his own recipe than refine another chef’s recipe which has proven itself to be liked by guests the world over, As a consequence, odd recipes like Asparagus/Wild mushroom and Cabernet jus find their ways onto dinner tables when really they should find their ways into another cooking style. As his philosophy in his cooking style is: simple, fresh with flair

    His worked with Ashley Mark Benson – Roxborough Park Hotel in Melbourne, Virendra Bisht – Smoken Joes Café in Moonee Ponds, Warren King –Ivanhoe Hotel in Ivanhoe, Michael Lambi – Taxi Dining Room – Modern Australian and Japanese cuisine.

    Variety is the spice of life is the motto to modern Australian cuisine. A blend of Mediterranean and Asian ingredients to work with when creating recipes, and these being combined into imaginative ways is Chef Asanka’s verdict. For example, Roasted Gibsland Eye Fillet with confit Asparagus/Wild mushroom and Cabernet jus or Confit Ocean trout with warm salad of sautéed potatoes/rocket and hazelnut and Chardonnay cream, Roasted King Prawns, seared scallops, salad of asparagus, micro herbs, confit tomato and spices, are just a few to mention that he conjures up.

    MLH indeed thrives on the statement the “world at our doorstop” when they surface worldclass cooking styles for you to experience, it’s not surprising that Modern Australian cuisine is the ultimate fusion of Asian and Australian flavours. Visit MLH on 26 th and 29 th Jan and enjoy a complete range of fabulous Modern Australian recipes with Chef Asanka when he will be the main highlight on Slow Food Australian style and the Great Australian BBQ — you won’t be disappointed.

    Posted in News | Comments Off on Ultimate fusion of Asian and Australian flavours with Chef Asanka at MLH

    Watch the video: Martins West Pub, Red Tavern, August 1 Five: Check, Please! Bay Area reviews